HEK-Blue™ TLR2 cells are designed for studying the stimulation of TLR2 by monitoring the activation of NF-κB/AP1.
TLR2 is involved in the recognition of a wide array of microbial molecules. TLR2 recognizes peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acid and lipoprotein from gram-positive bacteria, lipoarabinomannan from mycobacteria, and zymosan from yeast cell wall. TLR2 cooperates with TLR6 in response to diacylated mycoplasmal lipopeptide , and associates with TLR1 to recognize triacylated lipopetides [2,3]. Simultaneous expression of the extracellular and intracellular domains of both TLR1 and TLR2 is essential for ligand recognition and subsequent ligand-induced signal activation . Furthermore, pathogen recognition by TLR2 is strongly enhanced by CD14 .
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1. Girard R. et al., 2003. Lipopolysaccharides from Legionella and Rhizobium stimulate mouse bone marrow granulocytes via Toll-like receptor 2. J Cell Sci. 116:293-302.
2. Ozinsky A. et al., 2000. The repertoire for pattern recognition of pathogens by the innate immune system is defined by cooperation between toll-like receptors. PNAS USA. 97:13766-71.
3. Thakran S. et al., 2008. Identification of Francisella tularensis lipoproteins that stimulate the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/TLR1 heterodimer. J Biol Chem 283: 3751-9.
4. Sandor F. et al., 2003. Importance of extra- and intracellular domains of TLR1 and TLR2 in NFkB signaling. J Cell Biol. 162: 1099-10.
5. Lotz S. et al., 2004. Highly purified lipoteichoic acid activates neutrophil granulocytes and delays their spontaneous apoptosis via CD14 and TLR2. J Leukoc Biol. 75(3):467-77.