TLR9 Ligands

InvivoGen offers an extensive collection of high-quality ligands to study TLR9

TLR9 signaling pathway
TLR9 signaling pathway

The Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9) is an endosomal receptor that triggers NF-κB- and IRF-mediated pro-inflammatory responses upon the recognition of unmethylated cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanosine (CpG) forms of DNA. Unmethylated CpG dinucleotides are a hallmark of microbial (bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasite) DNA and mitochondrial self-DNA. These TLR9 agonists can be mimicked by synthetic oligonucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG ODNs), which have been extensively studied to improve adaptive immune responses in the context of vaccination.

However, there is currently only one FDA-approved CpG-based adjuvant (CpG 1018®) for human vaccine use. The mechanism of CpG ODNs and how they exert their adjuvant effect remains to be elucidated. Advances in the past decades in understanding innate immunity have brought a wider interest in understanding how TLR9 ligands work and how they might be improved.


InvivoGen provides a comprehensive choice of TLR9 agonists and antagonists. Our growing library includes:


The specificity, activity, and potency of each ligand are vigorously tested using our HEK-Blue™ TLR and THP1-Dual™ hTLR9 reporter cell lines. Moreover, each lot is functionally tested and guaranteed contamination-free to avoid TLR9-independent immune responses.  For vaccination studies, InvivoGen supplies various TLR9 agonists (e.g. ODN 2006, ODN 1018)  in a pre-clinical VacciGrade™.  

VacciGrade™ is a high-quality pre-clinical grade. VacciGrade™ products are filter-sterilized (0.2 µm) and filled under strict aseptic conditions in a clean room. The absence of bacterial contamination is assessed by a sterility test using a pharmacopeia-derived assay. 


More infoGet more information about CpG ODN classes.

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