Toll-Like Receptors

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were the first pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) identified in mammals and to date are the best characterized.

They initiate key inflammatory responses and also shape adaptative immunity.

All TLRs (10 in humans and 11 in mice) are type I transmembrane proteins characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic tail.

They recognize diverse pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses, including lipid-based bacterial cell wall components such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipopeptides, microbial protein components such as flagellin, and nucleic acids such as single-stranded or double-stranded RNA and CpG DNA.

They also react to certain damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) from endogenous cells and the environment.


InvivoGen offers numerous tools to study TLR signaling pathways:

Read our review on Toll-Like Receptors

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