Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR8 are endosomal receptors that play an important role in the immune response to viral infection. They recognize GU-rich short single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) as their natural ligand, as well as small synthetic molecules, such as imidazoquinolines and nucleoside analogs. TLR7 and TLR8 signaling is MyD88-dependent and is mediated by the nuclear translocation of AP-1 and NF-κB, in addition to the phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factors (IRFs). IRFs promote the induction of interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) and the subsequent expression of type I interferon (IFN) genes, whereas AP-1 and NF-κB activation results in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
InvivoGen provides the most comprehensive choice of TLR7, TLR7/8, and TLR8 ligands, including:
- Single-stranded RNAs - the RNA homopolymer ssPolyU and GU-rich oligonucleotides, such as ssRNA40.
- Base Analogs - imidazoquinoline compounds, such as Resiquimod (R848) and R837, the thiazoquinoline compound CL075, and nucleoside analogs, such as Loxoribine.
- TLR8 Antagonists - the specific inhibitor of human and mouse TLR8 CU-CPT9a, as well as the dual and selective inhibitor for TLR7 and TLR8 M5049.