Invivogen
Menu

HKSA

HKSA Unit size Cat. code Docs Qty Price
Heat Killed Staphylococcus aureus
10e10 cells
tlrl-hksa
+-
$132.00

Heat Killed Staphylococcus aureus

HKSA is a lyophilized heat-killed preparation of Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive extra-cellular growing bacterium. HKSA is recognized mainly by TLR2.

HKSA induces tolerance to a secondary HKSA stimulation but causes priming to LPS, suggesting a differential regulation of cytokines and chemokines in gram-positive- and gram-negative-induced inflammatory events.

Back to the top

Specifications

Specificity: TLR2 agonist

Working concentration: 106-108 cells/ml

Solubility: Insoluble (resuspended HKSA results in a cloudy suspension)

Back to the top

Contents

  • 1010  freeze-dried cells of Heat Killed Staphylococcus aureus (HKSA)
  • 1.5 ml sterile endotoxin-free water

room temperature HKSA is shipped at room temperature.

store Stored at 4°C.

Upon resuspension, prepare aliquots of HKSA and store at 4°C for short term storage or -20°C for long storage.

stable Product is stable 1 month at 4°C and 6 months at -20°C when properly stored.

Back to the top

Description

HKSA is a lyophilized heat-killed preparation of Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus, a Gram-positive extra-cellular growing bacterium, is a major source of mortality in medical facilities. It causes a wide range of infections from skin infection to life-threatening diseases. HKSA is recognized by TLR2, but also other TLR family members except for TLR4 [1]. It induces the production of TNF-α and IL-6 in macrophages through a MyD88-dependent signaling pathway [1,2]. HKSA induces tolerance to a secondary HKSA stimulation but causes priming to LPS, suggesting a differential regulation of cytokines and chemokines in gram-positive- and gram-negative-induced inflammatory events [3].

 

1. Takeuchi O. et al., 2000. Cutting edge: TLR2-deficient and MyD88-deficient mice are highly susceptible to Staphylococcus aureus infection. J. Immunol. 165:5392-5396.
2. Lembo A. et al., Differential contribution of Toll-like receptors 4 and 2 to the cytokine response to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus in mice. Infect Immun. 71(10):6058-62.
3. Peck OM. et al., 2004. Differential regulation of cytokine and chemokine production in lipopolysaccharide-induced tolerance and priming.Cytokine. 26(5):202-8.

Back to the top

Citations

Load more
Customer Service
& Technical Support
Shopping cart is empty