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Heat Killed Listeria monocytogenes

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10^10 cells

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Heat Killed Listeria monocytogenes

HKLM is a freeze-dried heat-killed preparation of Listeria monocytogenes (LM), a facultative intracellular Gram-positive bacterium. Infection with LM induces a strong nonspecific response characterized by the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines.

This response is mediated by the interaction between MyD88 and several TLRs, mainly TLR2 [1], a Toll-like receptor involved in the recognition of multiple products of Gram+ bacteria.

Stimulation with HKLM induces immediate activation of NF-κB and the production of proinflammatory cytokines [2,3].



1. Flo TH. et al., 2000. Human toll-like receptor 2 mediates monocyte activation by Listeria monocytogenes, but not by group B streptococci or lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol, 164(4):2064-9.
2. Hauf N. et al., 1997. Listeria monocytogenes infection of P388D1 macrophages results in a biphasic NF-κB (RelA/p50) activation induced by lipoteichoic acid and phospholipases and mediated by IkBa and IkBb degradation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94(17):9394-9.
3. Plevy SE. et al., 1998. Multiple control elements mediate activation of the murine and human interleukin 12 p40 promoters: evidence of functional synergy between C/EBP and Rel proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 17(8):4572-88.
4. Schindler U. & Baichwal Vr., 1994. Three NF-κB binding sites in the human Eselectin gene required for maximal tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced expression. Mol Cell Biol, 14(9):5820-5831.

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Specificity: TLR2 agonist

Working concentration: 107-108 cells/ml

Solubility: Insoluble (resuspended HKLM results in a cloudy suspension)

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  • 1010 freeze-dried cells of Heat Killed Listeria Monocytogenes (HKLM)
  • 1.5 ml sterile endotoxin-free water

HKLM is shipped at room temperature.

HKLM should be stored at 4˚C.

Upon resuspension, prepare aliquots of HKLM and store at 4°C for short term storage or -20˚C for long storage.

Resuspended product is stable 1 month at 4°C and 6 months at -20°C when properly stored.

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