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COVID-19

Spotlight on COVID-19: Protective immunity & Re-infection

As our understanding of COVID-19 continuously progresses, some essential questions remain open including "Does protective immunity develop after SARS-CoV-2 infection?" and "How long does it last?" There is growing evidence that re-infection by SARS-CoV-2 can occur, indicating that immunity is either not strong enough, or not long-lasting in all individuals. Therefore, it is crucial to elucidate the conditions entailing re-infection, to better apprehend the development of an effective vaccine against SARS-Cov-2.

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Previous reviews

Products

CpG-free DNA Review

Review of the effect of  CpG dinucleotide on the immune response and the gene silencing of gene delivery vectors for gene therapy applications.

Innate Immunity / Inflammasome

Activation of the NLRP3 Inflammasome

The inflammasome is a large multiprotein complex which plays a key role in innate immunity by participating in the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18.

Innate Immunity / PRR

DAMPs: Endogenous Ligands of TLRs?

The Third International DAMPs and Alarmins Symposium was held in Pittsburgh, USA in 2008. The aim of this meeting was to introduce the emergent understanding of the danger signals also called alarmins or damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by analogy to the pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).

Products

siRNA and shRNA Design Guidelines

The design of siRNAs and short hairpin siRNAs (shRNAs) remains an empirical process since the molecular mechanisms underlying RNAi are not yet sufficiently understood to allow for the rational design of siRNAs.

Innate Immunity / PRR

Dectin-1

Dectin-1 is a recently discovered pattern-recognition receptor that plays an important role in antifungal innate immunity. Dectin-1, which is expressed on phagocytes, is a specific receptor for β-glucans.

Innate Immunity / PRR

TLR9 agonists: double-edge sword for immune therapies

Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) senses unmethylated CpG dinucleotides, a hallmark of microbial DNA, that can be mimicked by synthetic oligonucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG ODNs).

Innate Immunity / PRR / IFN response

Viral dsRNA Signaling Through TLRs and RLRs

Viral infections induce a strong innate immune response characterized by the rapid production of type I interferons (IFN α/β) leading to the inhibition of virus replication.

Innate Immunity / PRR

Agonistic and Antagonistic Effects of LPS on TLR4

Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major structural component of the outer wall of all Gram-negative bacteria and a potent activator of the immune system.

Innate Immunity / Products / IFN response

RNA interference: Induction of the IFN Response

RNA interference (RNAi) has become a powerful tool to uncover gene function and is evolving as a new therapeutic modality.

Innate Immunity / PRR

TLR7 and TLR8: Key players in the antiviral response

TLR7 and TLR8 are phylogenetically and structurally related. TLR7 is predominantly expressed in lung, placenta, and spleen, while TLR8 is predominantly expressed in lung and peripheral blood leukocytes, in particular monocytes.

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