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InvivoGen’s Reviews

COVID-19

Spotlight on COVID-19: Protective immunity & Re-infection

As our understanding of COVID-19 continuously progresses, some essential questions remain open including "Does protective immunity develop after SARS-CoV-2 infection?" and "How long does it last?" There is growing evidence that re-infection by SARS-CoV-2 can occur, indicating that immunity is either not strong enough, or not long-lasting in all individuals. Therefore, it is crucial to elucidate the conditions entailing re-infection, to better apprehend the development of an effective vaccine against SARS-Cov-2.

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Previous reviews

Innate Immunity / PRR / STING

Cytosolic DNA Sensors (CDSs): a STING in the tail

The innate immune system provides the first line of defense against infectious pathogens and serves to limit their early proliferation. It is also vital in priming and activating the adaptive immune system.

Innate Immunity / PRR

Toll-Like Receptors

Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in the early innate immune response to invading pathogens by sensing microorganism and are involved in sensing endogenous danger signals.

Innate Immunity / PRR

C-Type Lectin Receptors

C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) comprise a large family of receptors that bind to carbohydrates in a calcium-dependent manner.

Innate Immunity / PRR

RIG-I-Like Receptors & Cytosolic DNA Sensors

RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) constitute a family of cytoplasmic RNA helicases that are critical for host antiviral responses.

Vaccination

Vaccine Adjuvants review

Adjuvants are essential for enhancing and directing the adaptative immune response to vaccine antigens. This response is mediated by two main types of lymphocytes, B and T cells.

Vaccination

Immunoglobulin A (IgA)

The mucosal surfaces represent the largest area of exposure of the body to external pathogens. Immunoglobulin A (IgA), in its secretory form, is the main effector of the mucosal immune system and provides an important first line of defense against most pathogens that invade the body at a mucosal surface [1].

Vaccination

Immunoglobulin G

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are large molecules composed of two heavy chains γ and two light chains, either κ or λ.

Innate Immunity / PRR / STING

Recognition of Cytosolic DNA

The innate immune system reacts to diverse molecules of microbial origin, termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), or released from damaged or dying cells, called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs).

Innate Immunity / PRR

Damage-associated molecular patterns

Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), also known as alarmins, are molecules released by stressed cells undergoing necrosis that act as endogenous danger signals to promote and exacerbate the inflammatory response.

Antibodies

Engineered Fc Regions

The Fc region of an antibody mediates its serum half-life and effector functions, such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cell phagocytosis (ADCP).

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