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Innate Immunity / PRR / Inflammasome

NLRP3: a sophisticated drug target

NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3, cryopyrin or NALP3) is the best described inflammasome sensor and an attractive drug target. NLRP3 assembles into a multiprotein inflammasome complex to induce the secretion of IL-1β/IL-18 and pyroptosis in response to infections and cellular damage. However, NLRP3 inflammasome functions can also be detrimental to the host, as its abberant or chronic activation is linked with pathologies such as type-2 diabetes, gouty arthritis, cardiovascular and Alzheimer’s diseases, and rare genetic disorders such as CAPS (cryopyrin-associated-periodic-syndrome). Fast-paced research now aims at filling the gaps in the comprehension of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and regulation to develop novel therapeutics.

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Previous reviews

Vaccination

Immunoglobulin G

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are large molecules composed of two heavy chains γ and two light chains, either κ or λ.

Innate Immunity / PRR / STING

Recognition of Cytosolic DNA

The innate immune system reacts to diverse molecules of microbial origin, termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), or released from damaged or dying cells, called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs).

Innate Immunity / PRR

Damage-associated molecular patterns

Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), also known as alarmins, are molecules released by stressed cells undergoing necrosis that act as endogenous danger signals to promote and exacerbate the inflammatory response.

Antibodies

Engineered Fc Regions

The Fc region of an antibody mediates its serum half-life and effector functions, such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cell phagocytosis (ADCP).

Products

CpG-free DNA Review

Review of the effect of  CpG dinucleotide on the immune response and the gene silencing of gene delivery vectors for gene therapy applications.

Innate Immunity / Inflammasome

Activation of the NLRP3 Inflammasome

The inflammasome is a large multiprotein complex which plays a key role in innate immunity by participating in the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18.

Innate Immunity / PRR

DAMPs: Endogenous Ligands of TLRs?

The Third International DAMPs and Alarmins Symposium was held in Pittsburgh, USA in 2008. The aim of this meeting was to introduce the emergent understanding of the danger signals also called alarmins or damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by analogy to the pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).

Products

siRNA and shRNA Design Guidelines

The design of siRNAs and short hairpin siRNAs (shRNAs) remains an empirical process since the molecular mechanisms underlying RNAi are not yet sufficiently understood to allow for the rational design of siRNAs.

Innate Immunity / PRR

Dectin-1

Dectin-1 is a recently discovered pattern-recognition receptor that plays an important role in antifungal innate immunity. Dectin-1, which is expressed on phagocytes, is a specific receptor for β-glucans.

Innate Immunity / PRR

TLR9 agonists: double-edge sword for immune therapies

Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) senses unmethylated CpG dinucleotides, a hallmark of microbial DNA, that can be mimicked by synthetic oligonucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG ODNs).

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