As our understanding of COVID-19 continuously progresses, some essential questions remain open including "Does protective immunity develop after SARS-CoV-2 infection?" and "How long does it last?" There is growing evidence that re-infection by SARS-CoV-2 can occur, indicating that immunity is either not strong enough, or not long-lasting in all individuals. Therefore, it is crucial to elucidate the conditions entailing re-infection, to better apprehend the development of an effective vaccine against SARS-Cov-2.
Innate Immunity / IFN response
Interferons (IFNs) are key cytokines of the innate immune system known for their antiviral and immuno-modulatory properties. Three types of IFNs have been described: type I IFNs which are mainly comprised of IFN-αs and IFN-β, type II IFN or IFN-γ, and the most recently discovered type III IFNs or IFN-λs. Although IFN-α/β and IFN-λs share many overlapping functions, a unique role at the...
Innate Immunity / PRR
TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2) is an important pattern recognition receptor (PRR) detecting a large spectrum of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from bacteria, fungi, and parasites. An essential feature of TLR2 is its known ability to form functional heterodimers with TLR1 and TLR6 on the cell surface, which not only expands the range of PAMPs that it can recognize but potentially...
Innate Immunity / PRR / STING
STING (STimulator of INterferon Genes) has become a focal point in immunology research as well as a target in drug discovery. As a signaling hub in innate immunity, STING is a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) of paramount importance in orchestrating the body’s response to pathogenic, tumor, or self DNA in the cytoplasm. InvivoGen offers a growing family of products to help you explore...
Innate Immunity / Inflammasome / PRR
Fifteen years ago, the discovery of inflammasomes was a breakthrough in our comprehension of how inflammation is set off. Inflammasomes have since been shown to play key roles in various pathophysiologic conditions and therefore constitute a major target for drug development.
This review focuses on the central function of inflammasomes between innate and adaptive immunity.
Innate Immunity / PRR / STING
The innate immune system is crucial to limit viral infections. It relies on several groups of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize viral nucleic acids1. These PRRs include the cytosolic DNA sensor (CDS), cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), and the cytoplasmic RNA sensor, retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I). Once activated, they induce different signaling pathways leading to the...
Autophagy is one of the three principal mechanisms used by cells to sequester, remove and recycle waste, the others being proteasomal degradation and phagocytosis. In autophagy, macromolecules in the cytosol are engulfed in a newly formed phagocytic body and subsequently digested in a special lysosome that releases the resultant metabolites back into the cytosol.
Mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures has been known for decades and disturbingly, has become widespread, threatening academic labs to biopharmaceutical production facilities. In fact, depending on the laboratory, anywhere from 10% to 85% of cell lines may be contaminated. Mycoplasmas can drastically alter your cells and consequently, skew your research results
Mycoplasma contamination of cultured cells is a massive problem in research labs and industrial facilities. In fact, depending on the setting, anywhere from 10% to 85% of cell lines might be contaminated. Mycoplasma infection can drastically alter the functions and activities of eukaryotic cells, leading to experimental artifacts and consequently, to unreliable results.
Mycoplasmas are the smallest and simplest self-replicating organisms. Due to their minimal genome, they cannot perform metabolic functions such as production of a cell wall, or synthesis of nucleotides or amino acids. Therefore, they exist strictly as parasites, using diverse organisms as hosts, including humans, animals, insects and plants.
Innate Immunity / Inflammasome
Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complexes that are crucial for host defense to infection and endogenous danger signals. They promote the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 and cause a rapid and pro-inflammatory form of cell death called pyroptosis.