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COVID-19

Spotlight on COVID-19: Protective immunity & Re-infection

As our understanding of COVID-19 continuously progresses, some essential questions remain open including "Does protective immunity develop after SARS-CoV-2 infection?" and "How long does it last?" There is growing evidence that re-infection by SARS-CoV-2 can occur, indicating that immunity is either not strong enough, or not long-lasting in all individuals. Therefore, it is crucial to elucidate the conditions entailing re-infection, to better apprehend the development of an effective vaccine against SARS-Cov-2.

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Previous reviews

Vaccine & immunoglobulin / Antibodies

Antibody Isotypes

Antibodies are immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules made up of 2 large heavy chains (~55 kDa each) and 2 small light chains (~25 kDa each). Heavy chains are bound to light chains by sulfhydryl linkages to form a Y shaped structure. The stem of the Y contains the constant region (Fc) and the two prongs of the Y contain the variable region (Fab). The Fab interacts with the antigen and therefore is...

Innate Immunity / STING / PRR

Deciphering the STING Paradox

STING (stimulator of interferon genes), alternatively known as MPYS, TMEM173, MITA and ERIS, is a key sensor of cytosolic nucleic acids.
In the past year, an incredible amount has been revealed on the biology of STING. As the studies were published, the complexity of STING became apparent. STING, initially thought to serve solely as an adaptor protein for mediating signaling by...

Innate Immunity / PRR

β-Glucans: bittersweet ligands of Dectin-1

β-Glucans have been consumed for many centuries for their healing properties. Since the discovery of their immunomodulating capabilities, about five decades ago, β-glucans have attracted a great deal of attention in the biomedical arena.

Innate Immunity / PRR / STING

cGAS - The long awaited cytosolic DNA sensor?

The detection of viral and bacterial nucleic acids by the innate immune system has become an area of intense research.
Cytosolic DNA is well-known to induce the production of type I interferons (IFNs) through the STING-TBK1-IRF3 axis but the mechanism whereby it is sensed remains elusive.

Innate Immunity / PRR

Multi-TLR Agonists: Potential for Therapeutic Success

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the best studied pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their importance in stimulating innate and adaptive immunity is now well established.
TLRs are sensors of microbial components as well as host-derived endogenous molecules released by injured tissues. TLRs play a critical role in defense against invading pathogens but are also involved in other...

Innate Immunity / STING / Vaccination

STING in Vaccine Adjuvants

Adjuvants enhance and direct the adaptive immune response to vaccine antigens through various mechanisms, some of which are still poorly understood. Recently, STING and more generally the host nucleic acid sensing machinery were shown to play an essential role in vaccination.

Innate Immunity

Innate Immunity

The innate immune system is an evolutionarily conserved system acting as a first-line of defense against invading microbial pathogens and other potential threats to the host.

Innate Immunity / Inflammasome

Inflammasomes

The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family of proteins is involved in the regulation of innate immunity responses.

Products

Introducing Lucia: a new secreted luciferase

Luciferases encompass a wide range of enzymes used for bioluminescence, the emission of light produced by a living organism. Luciferases are highly prized bioindicators for life science research and drug discovery, owing to their remarkable sensitivity, lack of toxicity and wide dynamic range of quantitation.

Innate Immunity / PRR

Nod-Like Receptors

The cytosolic NOD-Like Receptors (NLRs, also known as CATERPILLERs, NODs or NALP/PAN/PYPAFs) are nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing receptors.

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