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pUNO1 bearing the human STING gene, HAQ variant
STING (stimulator of interferon genes; also known as TMEM173, MITA, MPYS, and ERIS) is essential for the IFN response to microbial or self-DNA, and acts as a direct sensor of cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs).
CDNs are important messengers in bacteria, affecting numerous responses of the prokaryotic cell, but also in mammalian cells, acting as agonists of the innate immune response.
Several non-synonymous variants of STING have been described in the human population.
STING-HAQ has been identified as a common haplotype (∼20% of the human population and found in THP1 cells). HAQ contains three non-synonymous single nucleotide substitutions; R71H, G230A and R293Q. STING-HAQ expresses a STING protein that displays a reduced intrinsic IFN-β stimulatory activity [1, 2] but retains the ability to respond to metazoan and bacterial CDNs .
1. Jin L. et al., 2011. Identification and characterization of a loss-of-function human MPYS variant. Genes Immun. 12(4):263-9.
2. Yi G. et al., 2013. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of human STING can affect Innate immune response to cyclic dinucleotides. PLoS One 8(10):e77846.
Human STING-HAQ (pUNO1-hSTING-HAQ)
ORF size : 1140 bp
Subclone : BspEI - NheI