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Amlexanox is a specific inhibitor of the noncanonical TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and IkB kinases IkappaB kinase-epsilon (IKKε) . TBK1 and IKKε play a central role in the innate immune response. Notably, these noncanonical IkappaB kinase homologs are essential components of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) signaling pathway.
Mode of action:
Amlexanox inhibits TBK1 and IKK-ε by competing for ATP-binding to the enzyme. At the concentrations that block TBK1 and IKKε, Amlexanox has no effect on the canonical IkB kinases IKKα and IKKβ, or a large panel of other kinases.
IKKε and TBK1 are essential players in the coordination of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)- and NF‑κB-mediated inflammatory signaling pathways. Indeed, elevated IKKε and TBK1 activity has been associated with several inflammatory diseases [2,3].
Of note, Amlexanox has been approved for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including asthma and aphthous ulcers, due to its anti-inflammatory and anti‑allergic properties. It is being investigated as a novel therapeutic for type II diabetes and obesity , as increased IKKε and TBK1 activity has been linked to low-grade chronic inflammation associated with insulin resistance and metabolic disorders .
- A potent and specific inhibitor of TBK1 and IKK-ε
- Each lot is functionally tested
1. Reilly SM. et al., 2013. An inhibitor of the protein kinases TBK1 and IKK-e improves obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions in mice. Nat Med. 19(3):313-21.
2. Yu J. et al., 2015. Regulation of T-cell activation and migration by the kinase TBK1 during neuroinflammation. Nat Commun. 6:6074.
3. Niederberger E. et al., 2013. The non-canonical IkB kinases IKKe and TBK1 as potential targets for the development of novel therapeutic drugs. Curr Mol Med. 13(7):1089-97.
4. Chiang SH. et al., 2009. The protein kinase IKKepsilon regulates energy balance in obese mice. Cell. 138(5):961-75.
CAS number: 68302-57-8
Working concentration: 1-300 μg/ml for cell culture assays
Solubility: 10 mg/ml (33.5 mM) in DMSO
Molecular weight: 298.3 g/molBack to the top
Amlexanox is provided lyophilized.
- 50 mg Amlexanox
Amlexanox is shipped at room temperature.
Upon receipt, store at -20°C.
The resuspended product is stable for 6 months at -20°C when properly stored. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.Back to the top
TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1; also known as NF-κB activating kinase/NAK and T2K) is a multifunctional serine/threonine-protein kinase that belongs to the non-canonical IκB kinase family, together with its close homolog IkB kinase ε (IKKε, also known as IKKi). TBK1 plays an important role in the regulation of many cellular processes, including innate immunity, inflammatory cytokine production, autophagy, mitochondrial metabolism, and cell survival/proliferation .
In innate immune signaling, TBK1 acts as an integrator of receptor-mediated pathogen detection signals and as an interferon (IFN) response modulator [2, 3]. Viral, bacterial, or tumor DNA activate STING (stimulator of interferon genes protein), which triggers TBK1 signaling and results in the activation of the transcription factors IRF3 (IFN regulatory factor 3)and IRF7 to induce the expression of type-I IFNs. Additionally, TBK1 plays a role in other signaling pathways triggered by other innate adaptors, such as MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein) and TRIF (TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β).
1. Herhaus L., 2021. TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase 1)-mediated regulation of autophagy in health and disease. Matrix Biol. 100-101:84-98.
2. Durand J.K. et al., 2018. Roles for the IKK-related kinases TBK1 and IKKε in cancer. Cells. 7(9):139.
3. Runde AP. et al., 2022. The role of TBK1 in cancer pathogenesis and anticancer immunity J Exp Clin Cancer Res . 41(1):135.
Chemical structure of Amlexanox:
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