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Nigericin, sodium salt
NLRP3 Inflammasome Inducer - Nigericin, sodium salt
Nigericin is a microbial toxin derived from the Gram-positive bacteria Streptomyces hygroscopicus. It induces the release of IL-1β in response to the activation of the NLRP3 (also known as NALP3 or cryopyrin) inflammasome . The NLRP3 inflammasome is a caspase‑1-activating complex comprising the NLR protein NLRP3 and the adaptor ASC required for the maturation and secretion of IL-1β .
Nigericin acts as a potassium ionophore. It probably activates NLRP3 through its ionophore function which allows the intracellular potassium (K+) efflux across the membrane . Whether the formation of non‑selective pannexin-1 pores also contributes to NLRP3 activation upon Nigericin treatment remains unclear .
Key features of Nigericin:
- Inducer of the NLRP3 inflammasome
- Potassium ionophore
- Each lot is functionally tested
Read our review on the NLRP3 inflammasome.
Download our Practical guide on Inflammasomes.
1. Mariathasan S. et al., 2006. Cryopyrin activates the inflammasome and ATP. Nature 440;228-32.
2. Martinon F. & Tschopp J., 2004. Inflammatory caspases: linking an intracellular innate immune system to autoinflammatory diseases. Cell. 117(5):561-74.
3. Muñoz-Planillo R. et al., 2013. K+ efflux is the common trigger of NLRP3 inflammasome activation by bacterial toxins and particulate matter. Immunity. 38(6):1142-53..
4. Pelegrin P, & Surprenant A., 2007. Pannexin-1 couples to maitotoxin- and nigericin-induced interleukin-1beta release through a dye uptake-independent pathway. J Biol Chem. 282(4):2386-94.
IL-1β production in THP1-Null cells. Human THP-1 monocytes were primed with LPS-EK (1 µg/ml) prior to incubation with increasing concentrations of Nigericin. After 6h and 24h activation, IL-1β secretion was assessed in the culture supernatant using HEK-Blue™ IL-1β sensor cells and the SEAP detection reagent QUANTI-Blue™ Solution. The optical density (OD) was read at 630 nm.
Working concentration: 1-10 µM
CAS number: 28643-80-3
Synonym: Antibiotic K178, Polyetherin A
Molecular weight: 746.94 g/mol
Solubility: 5 mg/ml in ethanolBack to the top
Nigericin is provided as a sodium salt and is available in two quantities:
- 10 mg : tlrl-nig
- 50 mg : tlrl-nig-5
Nigericin is shipped at room temperature.
Store at -20 °CBack to the top
The NLRP3 Inflammasome:
The NLRP3 inflammasome is an innate immune sensor that is activated by a two-step process; a first signal (‘priming’) provided mainly by bacterial components or endogenous cytokines involves NF-κB induction, while the second signal provided by a wide array of stimuli including microbial toxins, endogenous molecules or crystalline substances and leads to inflammasome assembly and activation [1, 2]. This triggers inflammasome multimerization and caspase-1 activation with the subsequent cleavage of interleukin-1β (IL-1β)/IL-18 and the pore-forming protein Gasdermin D (GSDMD) into their active forms. Additionally, the activation of the inflammasome also leads to alarmin secretion and pyroptosis, a form of immunogenic cell death.
1. Swanson K.V. et al., 2019. The NLRP3 inflammasome: molecular activation and regulation to therapeutics. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 19:477.
2. Groslambert M. & Py B. 2018. Spotlight on the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. J. Inflamm. Res. 11:359.