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Monosodium Urate Crystals
NLRP3 inflammasome Inducer - Monosodium Urate Crystals -
Monosodium urate (MSU) or uric acid is the aetiological agent of the acute inflammatory condition gout . Notably, research has demonstrated that MSU crystals induce the release of interleukin (IL)-1β in response to the activation of the NLRP3 (also known as NALP3 or cryopyrin) inflammasome [1, 2]. The NLRP3 inflammasome is an intracellular multi-protein complex that plays a central role in innate immunity.
Mode of action:
MSU crystals can act as endogenous danger signals that stimulate the innate immune system to produce inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β . MSU crystals were shown to activate caspase-1, which is required for IL-1β maturation, through the NRLP3 (NALP3) inflammasome . The NLRP3 inflammasome is a caspase-1-activating complex comprising the NLR protein NLRP3 and the adaptor ASC . Involvement of the inflammasome is suggested by the finding that macrophages from mice deficient in various components of the inflammasome are defective in crystal-induced IL-1β induction .
Key features of MSU crystals:
- Potent inducer of the NLRP3 inflammasome
- Each lot is functionally tested
Read our review on the NLRP3 inflammasome.
Download our Practical guide on Inflammasomes.
1. Martinon F. et al., 2006. Gout-associated uric acid crystals activate the NALP3 inflammasome. Nature. 440(7081):237-41.
2. Martinon F, & Tschopp J., 2004. Inflammatory caspases: linking an intracellular innate immune system to autoinflammatory diseases. Cell. 117(5):561-74.
Working concentration: 100 - 200 µg/ml
CAS number: 1198-77-2
Linear formula: C5H3N4NaO3
Molecular weight: 190.1 g/mol
Structure: Triclinic crystals characterized by X-ray diffraction
Solubility: Not solubleBack to the top
Monosodium urate (MSU) crystals are available in two quantities:
- 5 mg: tlrl-msu
- 25 mg: tlrl-msu-25
MSU crystals are shipped at room temperature.
Store at 4 °C for 1 year.Back to the top
THP-1/HEK-Blue™ IL-1β Assay
MSU crystals can be used to induce the NLRP3 inflammasome in cellular assays, such as InvivoGen’s THP1/HEK-Blue™ IL-1β assay. This assay uses the secretion of IL-1β by THP1-Null2 cells as an indicator of NLRP3 inflammasome induction. The production of IL-1β by these cells is measured using HEK-Blue™ IL-1β cells.
1- Production of IL-1β by THP-1 cells: Typically, THP1-Null2 cells are primed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This treatment induces the production of NLRP3 and pro-IL-1β, the immature form of IL-1β. Subsequent stimulation with inflammasome inducers, such as MSU crystals, leads to NRLP3 and caspase-1 activation resulting in IL-1β maturation and secretion.
2- Detection of IL-1β by HEK-Blue™ IL-1β cells: THP1-Null2 cell supernatants containing IL-1β can be added to HEK-Blue™ IL-1β cells. This activates NF-κB and leads to the subsequent production of secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP). The presence of SEAP in HEK-Blue™ IL-1β supernatants is assessed using QUANTI-Blue™ Solution, a SEAP detection medium.Back to the top