PGN-BS peptidoglycan preparation
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PGN from Bacillus subtilis
Peptidoglycan from B. subtilis
PGN-BS is a peptidoglycan (PGN) preparation from the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis.
PGN is a major component of the bacterial cell wall. It is mainly single-layered in Gram-negative bacteria (e.g. E. coli) and multi-layered in Gram-positive bacteria (e.g. B. subtilis). PGN is a large polymeric molecule made of glycan strands connected by short peptides. PGN structure varies among bacterial species at the level of sugar polymers, and of cross-linked amino-acids. In Gram-positive bacteria, the amino-acid side chain structure consists of L-alanine, D-glutamate, L-lysine, and D-alanine. In Gram-negative bacteria, the L-Lysine is replaced by meso-diaminopimelic acid (mDAP or meso-DAP) .
PGN, either intact or fragmented, is sensed by the innate immune system through different PRRs (pattern recognition receptors). PGN is known to be a potent activator of NF-κB and TNF-α through TLR2, although it has been reported that PGN agonist activity for TLR2 is likely relying on other commonly co-purified molecules, such as cell wall lipoproteins and lipoteichoic acids (LTAs). The role of TLR2 in the direct recognition of PGN remains controversial, and the discrepancies among studies may arise from the purification methods as well as from the variation in PGN structure in the different bacterial species .
KEY FEATURES OF PGN-EB:
- Preparation of peptidoglycan from Bacillus subtilis
- Functionally-tested using cellular reporter assays
- Potent TLR2 agonist
- Potent NOD2 agonist
InvivoGen also offers ultrapure PGNs as NOD1/NOD2 agonists, and which do not activate TLR2 nor TLR4.
1. Wolf A.J. & Underhill D.M., 2018. Peptidoglycan recognition by the innate immune system. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 18(4):243-254.Back to the top
Specificity: TLR2 and NOD2 agonist
Solubility: 5 mg/ml in water
- 30 ng/ml -10 µg/ml PGN-BS for human TLR2 in cell culture assays
- 3 - 10 μg/ml PGN-BS for human NOD2 in cell culture assays
- The biological activity of PGN-BS has been verified using cellular assays.
- The absence of bacterial endotoxins is assessed using HEK-Blue™ hTLR4 cells.
- The absence of bacterial spores or live bacteria is confirmed using microbiological assays.
- 5 mg peptidoglycan from Bacillus subtilis (PGN-BS)
- 25 ml sterile endotoxin-free water
PGN-BS is shipped at room temperature
Store at -20 ̊C. Resuspended PGN-BS can be stored at -20°C for at least 1 month.
Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.Back to the top