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PGN-SA

PGN-SA Unit size Cat. code Docs Qty Price
PGN from Staphylococcus aureus
5 mg
tlrl-pgns2
+-
$124.00

Peptidoglycan from S. aureus

PGN-SA is peptidoglycan (PGN) purified from the Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus.

PGN is a major surface component of Gram-positive bacteria. It is embedded in a relatively thick cell wall and is usually covalently attached to other polymers, such as lipoproteins and LTAs.

PGN-SA is known to be a potent activator of NF-κB and TNF-α through TLR2. However, other pattern recognition proteins have been reported to mediate the immunostimulatory activity of PGN. This discrepancy is attributed to the method of purification.

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Specifications

Specificity: TLR2 agonist

Working concentration: 0.1 - 10 μg/ml

Endotoxin level:  1 EU/mg

Appearance:  White lyophilized powder

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Contents

  • 5 mg peptidoglycan (PGN) purified from S. aureus
  • 25 ml sterile endotoxin-free water

room temperature PGN-SA is shipped at room temperature and

store PGN-SA should be stored at -20 ̊C for up to 2 years. Resuspended PGN-SA can be stored at -20 ̊C for 1 year.

Alert Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.

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Description

Peptidoglycan (PGN) is a major surface component of Gram-positive bacteria. PGN is known to be a potent activator of NF-κB and TNF-α.

This immunostimulatory response is mediated by TLR2 [1].

However recent studies wit purified PGNs from different bacteria have revealed that these PGNs are not sensed through TLR2, TLR2/1 or TLR2/6 [2].

PGN sensing is lost after removal of lipoproteins or LTAs from bacterial cell walls. These data suggest the immunostimulatory activity of PGN is triggered by other pattern recognition proteins (PRPs) such as NOD1 and NOD2 [3], intracellular PRPs that detect PGN degradation products, and PGRPs which role in PGN response is still unknown [4].

 

1. Takeuchi O. et al. ,1999. Differential roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in recognition of gram- negative and gram-positive bacterial cell wall components. Immunity, 11(4): 443-51.
2. Travassos LH. et al., 2004. Toll-like receptor 2-dependent bacterial sensing does not occur via peptidoglycan recognition. EMBO Rep. 5(10):1000-1006.
3. Girardin SE et al., 2003. Peptidoglycan molecular requirements allowing detection by Nod1 and Nod2. J Biol Chem. 278(43): 41702-8.
4. Dziarski R. 2004. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs). Mol Immunol. 40(12):877-86.

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Citations

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