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Biotinylated TLR4 Agonist
Biotinylated LPS from E. coli O111:B4
LPS-EB Biotin is biotinylated ultrapure lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli 0111:B4. LPS is recognized by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) which interacts with three different extracellular proteins: LPS binding protein (LBP), CD14 and, myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2), to induce a signaling cascade leading to the activation of NF-κB and the production of proinflammatory cytokines.
However, most LPS preparations on the market are contaminated by other bacterial components, such as lipoproteins, thus activating TLR2 signaling as well as TLR4 signaling. The ultrapure preparation that InvivoGen provides only activates the TLR4 pathway.
LPS-EB Biotin can be used for the detection of LPS binding sites by cytometry or fluorescence microscopy.
Specificity: TLR4 agonist
Working concentration: 10 ng - 10 μg/ml
Endotoxin level: 1 x 106 EU/mgBack to the top
- 500 μg biotinylated ultrapure E. coli O111:B4 LPS (LPS-EB Biotin)
- 1.5 ml endotoxin-free water
LPS-EB Biotin is shipped at room temperature
Stored at -20°C.
Resuspended biotinylated LPS may be stored at 4°C for 1 month.Back to the top
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major structural component of the outer wall of Gram-negative bacteria, is a potent activator of the immune system.
Large quantities of LPS induce the overproduction of cytokines causing septic shock while suboptimal doses of LPS induce tolerance to subsequent exposure to LPS .
LPS recognition is predominantly mediated by TLR4 . This recognition involves the binding of LPS with lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and subsequently with CD14 which physically associates with a complex including TLR4 and MD2 .
Most LPS preparations on the market are contaminated by other bacterial components, such as lipoproteins, thus activating TLR2 signaling as well as TLR4 signaling. The Ultra-Pure preparation that InvivoGen provides only activates the TLR4 pathway.
Biotin has been bound to LPS’s oxidized carbohydrates using biotin-LC-hydrazide . LPS-EB Biotin can be used for the detection of LPS binding sites by cytometry or fluorescence microscopy.
1. Fujihara M. et al., 2003. Molecular mechanisms of macrophage activation and deactivation by lipopolysaccharide: roles of the receptor complex. Pharmacol Ther 100:171.
2. Poltorak A. et al., 1998. Defective LPS signaling in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice: mutations in TLR4 gene. Science 282:2085.
3. Latz E. et al., 2002. Lipopolysaccharide rapidly traffics to and from the Golgi apparatus with the toll-like receptor 4-MD-2-CD14 complex in a process that is distinct from the initiation of signal transduction. J Biol Chem 277:47834.
4. Luk JM. et al., 1995. Biotinylated lipopolysaccharide binds to endotoxin receptor in endothelial and monocytic cells. Anal Biochem 232:217.