Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is the receptor for Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipid A, its toxic moiety.
InvivoGen supplies LPS from various bacteria and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA purified from S. minnesota R595 or synthetic MPLA from E. coli).
MPLA VacciGrade™ (preclinical grade: guaranteed sterile) for use as a vaccine adjuvant is also available.
InvivoGen provides LPS with two grades of purity:
LPS-EB and LPS-EK are standard preparations of lipopolysaccharide. They are extracted by a phenol-water mixture. LPS-EB and LPS-EK contain other bacterial components, such as lipopeptides, and therefore stimulate both TLR4 and TLR2.
Ultrapure LPS-EB (E. coli 0111:B4), LPS-EK (E. coli K12) and LPS-SM (S. minnesota Re type) are extracted by successive enzymatic hydrolysis steps and purified by the phenol-TEA-DOC extraction protocol.
The functionality of these TLR ligands are validated using HEK-Blue™ TLR4 Cells.