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Innate Immunity / PRR / Inflammasome

NLRP3: a sophisticated drug target

NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3, cryopyrin or NALP3) is the best described inflammasome sensor and an attractive drug target. NLRP3 assembles into a multiprotein inflammasome complex to induce the secretion of IL-1β/IL-18 and pyroptosis in response to infections and cellular damage. However, NLRP3 inflammasome functions can also be detrimental to the host, as its abberant or chronic activation is linked with pathologies such as type-2 diabetes, gouty arthritis, cardiovascular and Alzheimer’s diseases, and rare genetic disorders such as CAPS (cryopyrin-associated-periodic-syndrome). Fast-paced research now aims at filling the gaps in the comprehension of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and regulation to develop novel therapeutics.

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Previous reviews

Innate Immunity / PRR

RIG-I & cancer immunotherapy

The development of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has revolutionized cancer immunotherapy, although complete remission remains limited to a small panel of cancers and patients. ICIs act by relieving checkpoint restraints on antitumor T cell responses. They work best against immunogenic, T-cell inflamed or « hot » tumors. In contrast, ICIs are poorly efficient in «cold» tumor...

Antibodies

Immune Checkpoint Blockade: InestimAble Advances

Over the last decade, the understanding of key steps in the regulation of T cell responses has led to the groundbreaking development of immune checkpoint blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to fight cancer. The first FDA-approved mAbs have provided unprecedented remissions in melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer, although with considerable variation in response rates (10% to 90%) and...

Innate Immunity / PRR

AhR's key role in the intestinal microbiota and immunity

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcriptional factor widely expressed among immune, epithelial, endothelial and stromal cells in barrier tissues. While historically studied in the context of chemical pollutants such as dioxin, AhR was more recently revealed as a central sensor of a wider range of environmental cues, ensuring intestinal homeostasis between the host...

Cytokines

IL-2: The Activator and Controller

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) plays a crucial role in both regulating immune responses while also maintaining peripheral self-tolerance. It acts primarily as a T cell growth factor, essential for the proliferation and survival of T cells as well as the generation of effector and memory T cells. In addition, the dual functions of IL-2 in both protective immunity and immune tolerance allows IL-2 to be...

Innate Immunity / IFN response

Interferon λs: guardians of the front-lines

Interferons (IFNs) are key cytokines of the innate immune system known for their antiviral and immuno-modulatory properties. Three types of IFNs have been described: type I IFNs which are mainly comprised of IFN-αs and IFN-β, type II IFN or IFN-γ, and the most recently discovered type III IFNs or IFN-λs. Although IFN-α/β and IFN-λs share many overlapping functions, a unique role at the...

Innate Immunity / PRR

When you can’t do it alone: TLR2 heterodimers and innate immunity

TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2) is an important pattern recognition receptor (PRR) detecting a large spectrum of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from bacteria, fungi, and parasites. An essential feature of TLR2 is its known ability to form functional heterodimers with TLR1 and TLR6 on the cell surface, which not only expands the range of PAMPs that it can recognize but potentially...

Innate Immunity / PRR / STING

Follow the path to STING

STING (STimulator of INterferon Genes) has become a focal point in immunology research as well as a target in drug discovery. As a signaling hub in innate immunity, STING is a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) of paramount importance in orchestrating the body’s response to pathogenic, tumor, or self DNA in the cytoplasm. InvivoGen offers a growing family of products to help you explore...

Innate Immunity / Inflammasome / PRR

Inflammasomes : connecting innate and adaptive immunity

Fifteen years ago, the discovery of inflammasomes  was a breakthrough in our comprehension of how inflammation is set off. Inflammasomes have since been shown to play key roles in various pathophysiologic conditions and therefore constitute a major target for drug development.

This review focuses on the central function of inflammasomes between innate and adaptive immunity.

Innate Immunity / PRR / STING

The RIG-I and STING Alliance

The innate immune system is crucial to limit viral infections. It relies on several groups of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize viral nucleic acids1. These PRRs include the cytosolic DNA sensor (CDS), cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), and the cytoplasmic RNA sensor, retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I). Once activated, they induce different signaling pathways leading to the...

Innate Immunity

Autophagy and Innate Immunity

Autophagy is one of the three principal mechanisms used by cells to sequester, remove and recycle waste, the others being proteasomal degradation and phagocytosis. In autophagy, macromolecules in the cytosol are engulfed in a newly formed phagocytic body and subsequently digested in a special lysosome that releases the resultant metabolites back into the cytosol.
Autophagy, often...

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