InvivoGen presents a new Insight Newsletter reviewing TLR7 and TLR8 reporter cells, designed to monitor the intertwined NF-κB and IRF responses of the two Toll-Like Receptors TLR7 and TLR8. Also, M5049 (aka Enpatoran), a novel TLR7- and TLR8-specific antagonist, was added to our growing library of TLR7/8 ligands.
Mycoplasma contamination of cultured cells is a massive problem in research labs and industrial facilities. In fact, depending on the setting, anywhere from 10% to 85% of cell lines might be contaminated. Mycoplasma infection can drastically alter the functions and activities of eukaryotic cells, leading to experimental artifacts and consequently, to unreliable results.
Mycoplasmas are the smallest and simplest self-replicating organisms. Due to their minimal genome, they cannot perform metabolic functions such as production of a cell wall, or synthesis of nucleotides or amino acids. Therefore, they exist strictly as parasites, using diverse organisms as hosts, including humans, animals, insects and plants.
Innate Immunity / Inflammasome
Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complexes that are crucial for host defense to infection and endogenous danger signals. They promote the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 and cause a rapid and pro-inflammatory form of cell death called pyroptosis.
Vaccine & immunoglobulin / Antibodies
Antibodies are immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules made up of 2 large heavy chains (~55 kDa each) and 2 small light chains (~25 kDa each). Heavy chains are bound to light chains by sulfhydryl linkages to form a Y shaped structure. The stem of the Y contains the constant region (Fc) and the two prongs of the Y contain the variable region (Fab). The Fab interacts with the antigen and therefore is...
Innate Immunity / STING / PRR
STING (stimulator of interferon genes), alternatively known as MPYS, TMEM173, MITA and ERIS, is a key sensor of cytosolic nucleic acids.
In the past year, an incredible amount has been revealed on the biology of STING. As the studies were published, the complexity of STING became apparent. STING, initially thought to serve solely as an adaptor protein for mediating signaling by...
Innate Immunity / PRR
β-Glucans have been consumed for many centuries for their healing properties. Since the discovery of their immunomodulating capabilities, about five decades ago, β-glucans have attracted a great deal of attention in the biomedical arena.
Innate Immunity / PRR / STING
The detection of viral and bacterial nucleic acids by the innate immune system has become an area of intense research.
Cytosolic DNA is well-known to induce the production of type I interferons (IFNs) through the STING-TBK1-IRF3 axis but the mechanism whereby it is sensed remains elusive.
Innate Immunity / PRR
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the best studied pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their importance in stimulating innate and adaptive immunity is now well established.
TLRs are sensors of microbial components as well as host-derived endogenous molecules released by injured tissues. TLRs play a critical role in defense against invading pathogens but are also involved in other...
Innate Immunity / STING / Vaccination
Adjuvants enhance and direct the adaptive immune response to vaccine antigens through various mechanisms, some of which are still poorly understood. Recently, STING and more generally the host nucleic acid sensing machinery were shown to play an essential role in vaccination.
The innate immune system is an evolutionarily conserved system acting as a first-line of defense against invading microbial pathogens and other potential threats to the host.