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HEK-Blue™ TLR9

HEK-Blue™ TLR9 cells are designed for studying the stimulation of TLR9 by monitoring the activation of NF-κB and AP-1.

TLR9 is expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum of resting cells in contrast to most TLRs that are located on the plasma membrane [1]. TLR9 recognizes specific unmethylated CpG-ODN sequences, that distinguish bacterial DNA from mammalian DNA. TLR9 engages an intracellular signaling pathway that involves MyD88 leading to NF-κB translocation [2]. TLR9 recognizes different CpG motifs; the optimal sequences being GTCGTT and GACGTT for human TLR9 and murine TLR9 respectively [3]. TLR9 binds directly to CpG DNA and recognizes specifically CpG DNA that is unmethylated and single stranded [4].

1. Latz E. et al., 2004. TLR9 signals after translocating from the ER to CpG DNA in the lysosome. Nat Immunol. 5(2):190-8.
2. Chuang TH. et al., 2002. Toll-like receptor 9 mediates CpG-DNA signaling. J Leukoc Biol, 71(3):538-44.
3. Bauer S. et al., 2001. Human TLR9 confers responsiveness to bacterial DNA via species-specific CpG motif recognition. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 98(16):9237-42.
4. Rutz M. et al., 2004. Toll-like receptor 9 binds single-stranded CpGDNA in a sequence- and pH-dependent manner. Eur J Immunol. 34(9):2541-50.

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