Biosimilar Isotype Families

Biosimilar isotypes derived from clinically relevant antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become a major tool in autoimmunity and cancer research. They function through various mechanisms with the ultimate effect of priming either the innate or adaptive arm of the immune system.

The efficacy of antibodies is governed by their bifunctional nature: the variable region confers antigen specificity and the constant region triggers antibody-mediated effector functions by engaging a variety of Fc receptors. These effector functions include complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP).

One approach employed to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic mAbs is to modify the immunoglobulin (Ig) constant region.

Effector functions Human isotypes Mouse isotypes
IgG1 IgG2 IgG3 IgG4 IgM IgA1 IgA2 IgE IgG1NQ IgG1fut IgG4S228P IgG1 IgG2a IgA IgG1e3
ADCC ++ +/- ++ +/- + + + + - ++++ +/- +/- ++ + -
ADCP +++ +/- ++ + - + + - - +++ + + +++ + -
CDC ++ + +++ - +++ - - - +/- ++ - - ++ - -
Engineered isotypes
Native isotypes

Read our review on Antibody Isotypes

Read about biosimilar immune checkpoint mAbs

InvivoGen provides a series of biosimilar antibodies for research only. They feature the variable region sequences of therapeutic antibodies, such as anti-hCD20 (rituximab, ofatumumab, obinutuzumab), anti-HER2 (trastuzumab) and anti-hPD1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab), available in their original format or with different Ig isotypes, either native or engineered. These antibody isotype families will help to study and compare effector functions between different isotypes and determine which isotype is the most suitable for research application.

InvivoGen’s research-grade biosimilars are generated by recombinant DNA technology, produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and purified by affinity chromatography. They contain the human or murine kappa light chain, are sterile, free of sodium azide and validated by flow cytometry.  

Large quantities are available upon request.


InvivoGen provides the following combination of target and isotype:

Anti-CD20: hIgG1, hIgG2, hIgG3, hIgG4*, hIgM*, hIgA1*, hIgA2*, hIgE*, hIgG1NQ, hIgG1fut, hIgG4 (S228P)*, mIgG1, mIgG1e3, mIgG2a*, mIgA*, dIgG2*

Anti-CTLA4: hIgG1, hIgG2*, hIgA2*, hIgG1NQ*, hIgG1fut, hIgG4 (S228P)

Anti-hEGFR: hIgG1, hIgG2*, hIgA1*, hIgG1NQ*, hIgG1fut*, hIgG4 (S228P)*

InvivoGen also offersInvivoGen also offers:

Anti-β-Gal isotype controls:
Human isotype controls
Murine isotype controls
Rat isotype controls

Anti-HER2: hIgG1, hIgA2, hIgG4 (S228P)

Anti-hIL-6R: hIgG1, hIgG2*, hIgA2*, hIgG1NQ*, hIgG1fut*, hIgG4 (S228P)

Anti-hPD-1: hIgG1, hIgG2*, hIgG1fut, hIgG1 (N298A), mIgG1*

Anti-hPD-L1: hIgG1, hIgG2*, hIgG1fut, hIgG1 (N298A), mIgG1*

Anti-hTIGIT: hIgG1, hIgG1NQ, hIgG1fut*

Anti-hRANKL: hIgG1, hIgG2*, hIgA2*

Anti-hTNF-a: hIgG1, hIgG2, hIgA2

Anti-hVISTA: hIgG1, hIgG1NQ, hIgG1fut

Anti-bGal: hIgG1, hIgG2*, hIgG3*, hIgG4*, hIgA2, hIgG1fut, hIgG4 (S228P), hIgG1(N298A), mIgG1*, mIgG1e3, mIgG2a*

* upon request

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