NOD Cell Lines
NOD1 (CARD4) and NOD2 (CARD15) are two members of the growing family of Nod-like receptors (NLRs, also known as CATERPILLER), characterized by a nucleotide-oligomerization domain (NOD) and ligand-recognizing leucine-rich repeats. NOD1 and NOD2 are intracellular pattern-recognition molecules involved in the recognition of peptidoglycan (PGN). They detect specific motifs within the PGN.
NOD1 senses the iE-DAP dipeptide which is found in PGN of all Gram-negative and certain Gram-positive bacteria whereas NOD2 recognizes the muramyl dipeptide (MDP) structure found in almost all bacteria. Both sensors signal via the serine/threonine RIP2 (RICK, CARDIAK) kinase which interacts with IKK leading to the activation of NF-κB and the production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6.