c-di-GMP VacciGrade™

Cyclic diguanylate monophosphate - STING agonist

Cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is is a cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) produced by bacteria in which it acts as a prevalent intracellular messenger. It controls motility, biofilm formation and bacterial pathogenicity.

CDNs are a relatively new class of adjuvants that have been shown to increase vaccine potency [1]. CDNs activate innate immunity by directly binding the endoplasmic reticulum-resident receptor STING (stimulator of interferon genes), activating a signaling pathway that induces the expression of interferon-β (IFN-β) and also nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) dependent inflammatory cytokines [2, 3].

Recent studies have also demonstrated that c-di-GMP exerts strong adjuvant activities when delivered by the mucosal route [4, 5]. c-di-GMP has been reported to elicit a balanced Th1/Th2 profile and Th17 response, which is crucial against intracellular pathogens [6].

c-di-GMP VacciGrade™ is a preclinical grade preparation of the cyclic dinucleotide c-di-GMP.

c-di-GMP VacciGrade™ is for research use only, not for use in humans.

Figures for this product

IRF INDUCTION (Lucia luciferase reporter)NF-kB INDUCTION (SEAP reporter)


Description: STING agonist
Synonym: Cyclic di-guanylate monophosphate, c-di-GMP sodium salt
CAS number: 61093-23-0
Formula: C20H22N10O14P2 .2Na
Molecular weight: 734.38
Purity: ≥ 95% by LC/MS
Solubility: 50 mg/ml in water
Quality: Sterile
Endotoxin Level: Lower than 0.005 EU/μg
Biological activity: Assessed by measuring induction of the interferon pathway in THP1-Blue™ ISG cells


- 1 mg of lyophilized c-di-GMP VacciGrade™
- 10 ml sterile endotoxin-free physiological water (NaCl 0.9%)


1. Dubensky TW. et al., 2013. Rationale, progress and development of vaccines utilizing STING-activating cyclic dinucleotide adjuvants. Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines 1(4): 131-143.
2. Jin L. et al., 2011. MPYS is required for IFN response factor 3 activation and type I IFN production in the response of cultured phagocytes to bacterial second messengers cyclic-di-AMP and cyclic-di-GMP. J Immunol. 187(5):2595-601.
3. Burdette DL. et al., 2011. STING is a direct innate immune sensor of cyclic di-GMP. Nature. 478(7370):515-8.
4. Neuhaus V. et al., 2014. A new adjuvanted nanoparticle-based H1N1 influenza vaccine induced antigen-specific local mucosal and systemic immune responses after administration into the lung. Vaccine. 32(26):3216-22.
5. Blaauboer SM. et al., 2014. MPYS/STING-mediated TNF-α, not type I IFN, is essential for the mucosal adjuvant activity of (3'-5')-cyclic-di-guanosine-monophosphate in vivo. J Immunol. 192(1):492-502.
6. Madhun AS. et al., 2011. Intranasal c-di-GMP-adjuvanted plant-derived H5 influenza vaccine induces multifunctional Th1 CD4+ cells and strong mucosal and systemic antibody responses in mice. Vaccine.29(31):4973-82.


Recent articles using InvivoGen c-di-GMP VacciGrade™


c-di-GMP VacciGrade™

Description Cyclic diguanylate monophosphate - STING agonist
Cat. Codevac-nacdg
Unit Size1 mg
Price For price or distributor address,
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Note that the sequence of available ORFs provided by InvivoGen can differ from a given reference Genbank record due to genetic variations and/or alternative splicing. Customers should verify that the version of a gene sold by InvivoGen is suitable for the customer needs.
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