TLRs & Innate Immunity

The innate immune system is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that provides an early and effective response against invading microbial pathogens.

More info on Innate Immunity

It relies on a limited set of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) commonly present in microbes but not in mammals. Upon detection of PAMPs, some PRRs trigger an inflammatory response leading to the efficient destruction of the invading pathogens.

Four main families of PRRs have been shown to initiate proinflammatory signaling pathways, but as our understanding of innate immunity expands, more PRRs are being identified.

TLR Toll-like receptor Pathways
TLR-NLR pathways poster (PDF)

TLR Toll-like receptor Pathways
CLR-RLR-CDS pathways poster (PDF)

 

TLRs & Innate Immunity

PRRs families

Toll-Like Receptors - TLRs Best characterized receptors involved in early innate immune response to invading pathogens
NOD-Like Receptors - NLRs Intracellular pattern recognition receptors that recognize cytoplasmic pathogen-associated molecular patterns
RIG-I-Like Receptors - RLRs Cytoplasmic RNA helicases that are critical for host antiviral responses
C-type Lectin Receptors - CLRs Receptors involved in fungal recognition and modulation of the innate immune response
Cytosolic dsDNA Sensors - CDSs Receptors to diverse molecules of microbial origin (PAMPs), or released from damaged or dying cells (DAMPs)
Inflammasome Large intracellular multiprotein complexes that play a central role in innate immunity
Autophagy & Innate Immunity Autophagy role is to sequester cellular stress-constituents, it also plays an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses

Tools for PRRs study

PRR & PAMPs Detection Rapid, convenient and reliable detection of pattern recognition receptors and pathogen-associated molecular patterns
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