PRRs & Innate Immunity

Innate immunity is an evolutionarily conserved system that provides the body's first line of defense against invading viral and microbial pathogens and helps maintain homeostasis by regulating endogenous processes such as inflammation and cell death. It relies on specialized receptors known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are common to microbes but not to mammals, and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are molecules released by the host's own tissue (e.g. from dying cells) or by the environment (e.g. toxins). Upon detection of PAMPs and DAMPs, certain PRRs trigger an inflammatory response that leads to efficient destruction of the invading pathogens. New PRRs and their ligands are constantly being discovered.


More info on Innate Immunity


TLR & NLR signaling pathways

TLR-NLR pathways poster (PDF)

CLR-RLR-CDS signaling Pathways

CLR-RLR-CDS pathways poster (PDF)


PRRs & Innate Immunity

PRRs families

Toll-Like Receptors - TLRsBest characterized receptors involved in early innate immune response to invading pathogens
NOD-Like Receptors - NLRsIntracellular pattern recognition receptors that recognize cytoplasmic pathogen-associated molecular patterns
RIG-I-Like Receptors - RLRsCytoplasmic RNA helicases that are critical for host antiviral responses
C-type Lectin Receptors - CLRsReceptors involved in fungal recognition and modulation of the innate immune response
Cytosolic DNA Sensors & STINGReceptors to diverse molecules of microbial origin (PAMPs), or released from damaged or dying cells (DAMPs)
InflammasomeLarge intracellular multiprotein complexes that play a central role in innate immunity

Tools for PRRs study

PRR & PAMP DetectionRapid, convenient and reliable detection of pattern recognition receptors and pathogen-associated molecular patterns
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