PRRs & Innate Immunity

Innate immunity is an evolutionarily conserved system that provides the body's first line of defense against invading viral and microbial pathogens and helps maintain homeostasis by regulating endogenous processes such as inflammation and cell death. It relies on specialized receptors known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are common to microbes but not to mammals, and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are molecules released by the host's own tissue (e.g. from dying cells) or by the environment (e.g. toxins). Upon detection of PAMPs and DAMPs, certain PRRs trigger an inflammatory response that leads to efficient destruction of the invading pathogens. New PRRs and their ligands are constantly being discovered.

 

More info on Innate Immunity

 

TLR & NLR signaling pathways

TLR-NLR pathways poster (PDF)

CLR-RLR-CDS signaling Pathways

CLR-RLR-CDS pathways poster (PDF)

 

PRRs & Innate Immunity

PRRs families

Toll-Like Receptors - TLRs Best characterized receptors involved in early innate immune response to invading pathogens
NOD-Like Receptors - NLRs Intracellular pattern recognition receptors that recognize cytoplasmic pathogen-associated molecular patterns
RIG-I-Like Receptors - RLRs Cytoplasmic RNA helicases that are critical for host antiviral responses
C-type Lectin Receptors - CLRs Receptors involved in fungal recognition and modulation of the innate immune response
Cytosolic DNA Sensors & STING Receptors to diverse molecules of microbial origin (PAMPs), or released from damaged or dying cells (DAMPs)
Inflammasome Large intracellular multiprotein complexes that play a central role in innate immunity
Autophagy & Innate Immunity Autophagy role is to sequester cellular stress-constituents, it also plays an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses

Tools for PRRs study

PRR & PAMP Detection Rapid, convenient and reliable detection of pattern recognition receptors and pathogen-associated molecular patterns
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