Cytosolic DNA Sensors & STING
Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is a potent inducer of type I interferons (IFNs). Several sensors of cytosolic dsDNA have been identified, including cGAS, IFI-16, DDX41 and LRRFIP1, which trigger different signaling pathways in a cell-type specific manner. AIM2 is another cytosolic DNA sensor, which upon activation forms an inflammasome leading to the secretion of IL-1β.
Induction of type I IFNs by cytosolic DNA is mediated by the endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein STING (stimulator of IFN genes). STING is also a direct sensor of both bacterial and mammalian cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), activating TBK-1/IRF-3 and NF-κB signaling pathways to induce robust type I IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines.
InvivoGen provides a growing list of tools to study cytosolic DNA sensors (CDSs) and STING. CDS products include CDS reporter cells, synthetic analogs of dsDNA as CDS ligands, different molecules that act as CDS inhibitors, and a collection of human and mouse CDS and related genes. STING products include a comprehensive choice of STING ligands, a collection of STING variants, and an expanding list of STING reporter cells.