For better efficacity, it is recommended to avoid 5' and 3'UTRs. These regions contain binding sequences for regulatory proteins that may affect the accessibility of the RNA target sequence to the RISC complex. However, we and others have successfully silenced the expression of several genes by targeting the 5' or 3'UTRs (1, 2, 3, 4). Therefore, 5' and 3'UTRs could also be considered when selecting a region on your target gene.
siRNA-mediated RNAi is based on using dsRNA < 30 nt to avoid nonspecific silencing. According to Hannon et al. siRNA of 25-29 nt are generally more effective than shorter ones. However, we and others found that hairpin siRNAs with duplex lengths of 19-21 nt are as effective as longer hairpin siRNAs (5, 6, 7).
Statistical analysis of published siRNA sequences
reveals that functional duplexes display lower internal stability
at the 5' antisense end relative to the rest of the sequence than
non-functional duplexes (8, 9).
Duplexes with a G at the 5'end and a A or T at the 3' end of the sense strand are favored (displayed in blue). Duplexes with a A at the 5' end and a A or T at the 3' end are less favored (displayed in black in "Advanced Search"). And duplexes with a G or C at the 3'end are discarded.
The first nucleotide of the siRNA sequence can
either be an A or a G. The pyrimidines C and
T should be avoided because expression of RNAs from RNA polymerase
III promoters is only efficient when the first transcribed nucleotide
is a purine. In cases where your siRNA sequence starts with a C
or T, we recommend to add an A as the first nucleotide. This addition
will not affect the activity of your siRNA since it will generate
a T at the end of the antisense siRNA strand that will be included
in the termination signal maintaining its complementarity with the
target sequence. This point is important since according to current
knowledge recognition of the specific gene target is achieved by
the antisense siRNA strand.
When using vector with the 7SK promoter, a G as the starting nucleotide should be preferred to a A. On the contrary, when using vector with the H1 promoter, a A as the starting nucleotide is more efficient than a G. That's the reason why we recommend to use 7SK vectors, since a G as starting nucleotide is preferred for thermodynamic stability (see above).
It is usually recommended to choose sequences with low GC content (between 30% and 55%). However, there are many examples of active siRNAs with high GC content (5, 11, 12).
In order to increase specificity, siRNA Wizard filter candidate
siRNA sequence to remove non-unique sequences by BLAST against
an unique and comprehensive mRNA database. According to Jackson
et al. (13) canditate siRNA presenting more than 13 contiguous nucleotides
of sequence identity with another mRNA are discarded.
Due to the increase of the database that drastically reduce the number of siRNA candidate, only siRNA presenting homology with more than 5 Unigene sequence are discarded. The list of homolog genes to each putative siRNA with their expression profiles and link to Unigene cluster enables the user to choose siRNA corresponding to his/her needs.
To avoid off target effect, siRNA Wizard filter candidate siRNA sequence to remove sequence displaying a known miRNA SEED recognition region at 3' end.
We and others have tested a variety of sequences for the loop between the two complementary regions of a shRNA, ranging from 3 to 9 nt in length. Similar effectiveness have been obtained for loops of 5, 7 or 9 nt. We use a 7 nt loop sequence (TCAAGAG) for the psiRNA vectors.
2016 - Cancer Gene Ther., 23(4):73-82. - Precise and efficient siRNA design: a key point in competent gene silencing. (Fakhr E. et al.)
2016 - Stem Cells Dev., 25(13):959-74. - Id2 Mediates Differentiation of Labyrinthine Placental Progenitor Cell Line, SM10. (Selesniemi K. et al.)
2016 - PLoS One., 11(10):e0164720. - Novel Strategy to Control Transgene Expression Mediated by a Sendai Virus-Based Vector Using a Nonstructural C Protein and Endogenous MicroRNAs. (Sano M. et al.)
2016 - Cancer Res., 76(1):171-81. d - Eva1 Maintains the Stem-like Character of Glioblastoma-Initiating Cells by Activating the Noncanonical NF-κB Signaling Pathway. (Ohtsu N. et al.)
2016 - Methods Mol Biol., 1364:277-90. - Efficient Gene Suppression in Dorsal Root Ganglia and Spinal Cord Using Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors Encoding Short-Hairpin RNA. (Enomoto M. et al.)
2014 - J Virol., 88(4):1897-913 - Cellular vimentin regulates construction of dengue virus replication complexes through interaction with NS4A protein. (Teo CS, Chu JJ)
2003 - Expression profiling reveals off-target gene regulation by RNAi. Nature Biotechnology 21(6): 635-637 (Jackson A.L. et al) 2003 - Inhibition of intracellular hepatitis C virus replication by synthetic and vector-derived small interfering RNAs. EMBO reports AOP. (Yokota T. et al.)
2003 - A lentivirus-based system to functionally silence genes in primary mammalian cells, stem cells and transgenic mice by RNA interference. Nature Genetics 33:401-406 ( Rubinson DA. et al)
2003 - Simultaneous inhibition of GSK3a andGSKb using hairpin siRNA expression vectors. Molecular Therapy 7(2):228-236 (Yu JY. et al)
2003 - RNA interference targeting Fas protects mice from fulminant hepatitis. Nature Medicine 9(3):347-351 (Song E. et al)
2003 - Functional siRNAs and miRNAs Exhibit Strand Bias. Cell 115(2):209-216 (Khvorova, A. et al)
2003 - Asymmetry in the Assembly of the RNAi Enzyme Complex. Cell 115(2):199-208 (Schwarz, D.S. at al)
2003 - A general method for gene knockdown in mice by using lentiviral vectors expressing small interfering RNA. PNAS 100(4):1844-1848 (Tiscornia G. et al)
2002 - RNA interference by expression of short-interfering RNAs and hairpin RNAs in mammalian cells, PNAS 99(9):6047-6052 (Yu JY. et al)
2002 - Gene silencing using micro-RNA designed hairpins. RNA 8:842-850 ( Mcmanus MT. et al)
2002 - Successful inactivation of endogenous Oct-314 and c-mos genes in mouse preimplantation embryos and oocytes using short interfering RNAs. BBRC 296:1372-1377 (Kim MH. et al)
2002 - Small interfering RNA and gene silencing in transgenic mice and rats. FEBS Letters 532:227-230 (Hasuwa H. et al)
2002 - Comparison of antisense oligonucleotides and siRNAs in cell culture and in vivo. BBRC 296:1000-1004 (Bertrand JR. et al)
The heart of InvivoGen's culture and commitment is to provide life scientists with quality and reliable reagents. Our strength in innovation comes from our expert scientific team that fosters the discovery and design of new tools and services to encourage cutting-edge bioresearch. As specialists in innate immunology, InvivoGen is a global leader of resources for the next breakthroughs in the field.
InvivoGen provides a set of cutting-edge tools to knockdown efficiently the expression of mammalian genes. These tools include the siRNA wizard software, shRNA cloning vectors and vectors expressing validated shRNAs, and systems for the prevalidation of siRNA/shRNAs or the detection of interferon response.
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