Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) share common structures and signaling that leads to NF-κB activation.
However, recent data suggest that NF-κB activation may not be uniform and that distinct TLR-ligand associations may trigger multiple pathways.
InvivoGen provides a number of tools that should prove useful to help elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in TLR signaling.
Some TLR ligands bind to the TLRs but unlike agonists they block the signaling cascade, such molecules are known for TLR4 and TLR9.
InvivoGen has also developed neutralizing antibodies against extracellular TLRs.