PGN-EK peptidoglycan preparation
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PGN from Escherichia coli K12
Peptidoglycan from E. coli K12
PGN-EK is a peptidoglycan (PGN) preparation from the Gram-negative Escherichia coli K12.
PGN, a major component of the bacterial cell wall, is a large polymeric molecule made of glycan strands connected by short peptides. It is mainly single-layered in Gram-negative bacteria (e.g. E. coli) and multi-layered in Gram-positive bacteria (e.g. B. subtilis). The structure of PGN varies among bacterial species at both the level of sugar polymers and of cross-linked amino-acids. In Gram-positive bacteria, the amino-acid side chain structure consists of L-alanine, D-glutamate, L-lysine, and D-alanine, whereas in Gram-negative bacteria, the L-Lysine is replaced by meso-diaminopimelic acid (mDAP or meso-DAP) .
PGN, either intact or fragmented, is sensed by the innate immune system through different PRRs (pattern recognition receptors). PGN is known to be a potent activator of NF-κB and TNF-α through TLR2, although it has been reported that PGN agonistic activity for TLR2 is likely relying on other commonly co-purified molecules, such as cell wall lipoproteins and lipoteichoic acids (LTAs). The role of TLR2 in the direct recognition of PGN remains controversial, and the discrepancies among studies may arise from the purification methods as well as from the variation in PGN structure in the different bacterial species .
Key features of PGN-EK:
- Preparation of peptidoglycan from Escherichia coli K12
- Functionally-tested using cellular reporter assays
- TLR2 and TLR4 agonist
InvivoGen also offers ultrapure PGNs as NOD1/NOD2 agonists, and which do not activate TLR2 nor TLR4.
1. Wolf A.J. & Underhill D.M., 2018. Peptidoglycan recognition by the innate immune system. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 18(4):243-254.Back to the top
Specificity: TLR2 agonist (and weak TLR4 agonist)
Working concentration: 1 - 10 μg/ml
- The biological activity of PGN-EK has been verified using HEK-Blue™ hTLR2 cells and HEK-Blue™ hTLR4 cells.
- 1 mg peptidoglycan from E. coli K12 (PGN-EK)
- 10 ml sterile endotoxin-free water
PGN-EK is shipped at room temperature.
Stored at -20 ̊C. Resuspended PGN can be stored at -20°C for 1 year.
Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.Back to the top