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PGN-EK peptidoglycan preparation

PGN-EK Unit size Cat. code Docs Qty Price
PGN from Escherichia coli K12
1 mg
tlrl-pgnek
+-
$183.00

Peptidoglycan from E. coli K12

PGN-EK is a peptidoglycan (PGN) preparation from the Gram-negative Escherichia coli K12.

PGN, a major component of the bacterial cell wall, is a large polymeric molecule made of glycan strands connected by short peptides. It is mainly single-layered in Gram-negative bacteria (e.g. E. coli) and multi-layered in Gram-positive bacteria (e.g. B. subtilis). The structure of PGN varies among bacterial species at both the level of sugar polymers and of cross-linked amino-acids. In Gram-positive bacteria, the amino-acid side chain structure consists of L-alanine, D-glutamate, L-lysine, and D-alanine, whereas n Gram-negative bacteria, the L-Lysine is replaced by meso-diaminopimelic acid (mDAP or meso-DAP) [1].

PGN, either intact or fragmented, is sensed by the innate immune system through different PRRs (pattern recognition receptors). PGN is known to be a potent activator of NF-κB and TNF-α through TLR2, although it has been reported that PGN agonistic activity for TLR2 is likely relying on other commonly co-purified molecules, such as cell wall lipoproteins and lipoteichoic acids (LTAs). The role of TLR2 in the direct recognition of PGN remains controversial, and the discrepancies among studies may arise from the purification methods as well as from the variation in PGN structure in the different bacterial species [1].

Key features of PGN-EK:

  • Preparation of peptidoglycan from Escherichia coli K12
  • Functionally-tested using cellular reporter assays
  • TLR2 and TLR4 agonist
 

InvivoGen also offers ultrapure PGNs as NOD1/NOD2 agonists, and which do not activate TLR2 nor TLR4.

 

Reference:

1. Wolf A.J. & Underhill D.M., 2018. Peptidoglycan recognition by the innate immune system. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 18(4):243-254.

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Specifications

Specificity: TLR2 agonist (and weak TLR4 agonist)

Working concentration: 1 - 10 μg/ml

Solubility: 1 mg/ml in water

Quality control:

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Contents

  • 1 mg peptidoglycan from E. coli K12 (PGN-EK)
  • 10 ml sterile endotoxin-free water

room temperature PGN-EK is shipped at room temperature.

store Stored at -20 ̊C. Resuspended PGN can be stored at -20°C for 1 year.

Alert Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.

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Citations

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