PGN-EB peptidoglycan preparation
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PGN from E. coli 0111:B4
Peptidoglycan from E. coli 0111:B4
PGN-EB is a peptidoglycan (PGN) preparation from the Gram-negative Escherichia coli 0111:B4.
PGN is a major component of the bacterial cell wall. It is mainly single-layered in Gram-negative bacteria (e.g. E. coli) and multi-layered in Gram-positive bacteria (e.g. B. subtilis). PGN is a large polymeric molecule made of glycan strands connected by short peptides. PGN structure varies among bacterial species at the level of sugar polymers, and of cross-linked amino-acids. In Gram-positive bacteria, the amino-acid side chain structure consists of L-alanine, D-glutamate, L-lysine, and D-alanine. In Gram-negative bacteria, the L-Lysine is replaced by meso-diaminopimelic acid (mDAP or meso-DAP) .
PGN, either intact or fragmented, is sensed by the innate immune system through different PRRs (pattern recognition receptors). PGN is known to be a potent activator of NF-κB and TNF-α through TLR2, although it has been reported that PGN agonist activity for TLR2 is likely relying on other commonly co-purified molecules, such as cell wall lipoproteins and lipoteichoic acids (LTAs). The role of TLR2 in the direct recognition of PGN remains controversial, and the discrepancies among studies may arise from the purification methods as well as from the variation in PGN structure in the different bacterial species .
Key features of PGN-EB:
- Preparation of peptidoglycan from Escherichia coli 0111:B4
- Functionally-tested using cellular reporter assays
- Potent TLR2 agonist, weak TLR4 agonist
InvivoGen also offers ultrapure PGNs as NOD1/NOD2 agonists, and which do not activate TLR2 nor TLR4.
1. Wolf A.J. & Underhill D.M., 2018. Peptidoglycan recognition by the innate immune system. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 18(4):243-254.Back to the top
Specificity: TLR2 agonist (and weak TLR4 agonist)
Solubility: 1 mg/ml in water
Working concentration: 10 ng/ml - 1 μg/ml
- The biological activity of PGN-EB has been verified using HEK-Blue™ hTLR2 cells and HEK-Blue™ hTLR4 cells.
- 1 mg E. coli 0111:B4 peptidoglycan (PGN-EB)
- 10 ml sterile endotoxin-free water
PGN-EB is shipped at room temperature.
PGN-EB can be stored at -20 ̊C for up to 2 years. Resuspended PGN-EB can be stored at -20°C for 1 year.
Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.Back to the top