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Standard LTA from B. subtilis
Lipoteichoic Acid from Bacillus subtilis
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a major immunostimulatory component of Gram-positive bacteria.
Like LPS, LTA is an amphiphile formed by a hydrophilic polyphosphate polymer linked to a neutral glycolipid.
LTA stimulates immune cells through TLR2 to produce TNF-α and other inflammatory cytokines.
Recognition of LTA involves also LPS-binding protein (LBP) and CD14.Back to the top
Specificity: TLR2 agonist
Working concentration: 100 ng -1 μg/ml
Endotoxin level: 10 EU/mgBack to the top
- 5 mg lipoteichoic acid from Bacillus subtilis (LTA-BS)
LTA-BS is shipped at room temperature
Stored at 4˚C. Upon resuspension, store LTA-BS at 4˚C for short term storage or at -20˚C for long storage.
Product is stable 1 month at 4˚C and 6 months at -20˚C when properly stored.
Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.Back to the top
Lipoteichoic acids (LTAs) are found in the cell walls of most Gram positive bacteria and are linked to the cytoplasmic membrane. Controversial results have been reported regarding the involvement of TLRs in LTA-induced immunostimulatory activity. LTAs from Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis were shown to induce activation of NF-κB in a TLR2-dependent manner1. Conversely, TLR4-deficient macrophages were shown to be hyporesponsive to S. aureus and Streptococcus sanguis LTA2. According to these results, TLR2 is the major receptor for LTAs with an additional involvement of TLR4 depending on the bacterial species and the methods used to extract the LTAs. It was recently reported that LPS-binding protein (LBP) and CD14 are involved in TLR2-mediated LTA stimulation .
1. Schwandner R. et al. 1999. Peptidoglycan- and lipoteichoic acid-induced cell activation is mediated by toll-like receptor 2. J Biol Chem, 274(25): 17406-9.
2. takeuchi O. et al. 1999. Differential roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in recognition of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial cell wall components. Immunity. 11(4):443-51.
3. Schröder N. et al. 2003. Lipotechoic acid (LTA) of S. pneumoniae and S. aureus activates immune cells via toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, LPS binding protein (LBP) and CD14 while TLR-4 and MD-2 are not involved. J Biol Chem. 275(25):22041-7.