ITE Unit size Cat. code Docs Qty Price
2-(1'H-indole-3'carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester; AhR Agonist
10 mg

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Glucobrassicin-derived agonist of AhR

ITE (2-(1' H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester) is a dietary-derived indole-based ligand of the cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transcription factor.
The pathways involved in ITE synthesis in vivo remain unclear [1]. ITE has been hypothesized to result from gastric conversion of glucobrassicins, a family of metabolites highly concentrated in cruciferous vegetables (such as broccoli and brussel sprouts), or from a condensation reaction between two amino acids, tryptophan and cysteine [1-3]. ITE is a potent AhR agonist both in vitro and in vivo, and unlike 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the prototypical AhR agonist, it does not induce toxicity [4].

InvivoGen's ITE is a high quality product (>95% purity) and is guaranteed free of bacterial contamination. Each lot of ITE is functionally tested in cellular assays using HepG2-Lucia™ AhR and HT29-Lucia™ AhR reporter cells.

Other AhR ligands, as well as an AhR antagonist are also available.


Read our review Read our review on AhR's key role in the intestinal microbiota and immunity.



1. Song J. et al., 2002. A ligand for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor isolated from lung. Proc.Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 99:14694-9.
2. Lamas B. et al., 2018. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor and intestinal immunity.  Mucosal Immunol. 11:1024-38.
3. Hubbard T.D. et al., 2015. Indole and tryptophan metabolism: endogenous and dietary routes to Ah receptor activation. Drug Metab. Dispos. 43:1522-35.
4. Henry E.C. et al., 2010. TCDD and a putative endogenous AhR ligand, ITE, elicit the same immediate changes in gene expression in mouse lung fibroblasts. Toxicol. Sci. 114:90-100.


Evaluation of cellular AhR activation by ITE
Evaluation of cellular AhR activation by ITE

ITE induces a dose-dependent response in HepG2-Lucia™ Ahr and HT29-Lucia™ Ahr cells.
The cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of ITE. After overnight incubation, the AhR activation
was assessed by determining Lucia luciferase activity in the supernatant using QUANTI-Luc™.
Data are expressed as fold responses, as compared to non-induced cells.

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CAS number: 448906-42-1

Synomym: 2-(1' H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester

Solubility: 100 mM (28.63 mg/ml) in DMSO

Working concentration: 1 µM (286.3 ng/ml) to 30 µM (8.59 μg/ml) for cell culture assays

Formula: C14H10N2O3S

Molecular weight: 286.3 g/mol

Quality control:

  • Purity ≥ 95% (UHPLC).
  • The absence of bacterial contamination (e.g. lipoproteins and endotoxins) has been confirmed using HEK-Blue™ TLR2 and HEK‑Blue™ TLR4 cells.
  • The biological activity has been validated using cellular assays.
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  • 10 mg ITE

ITE is shipped at room temperature.

Store at -20°C.


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ITE chemical structure

ITE chemical structure

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