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2-(1'H-indole-3'carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester; AhR Agonist
Glucobrassicin-derived agonist of AhR
ITE (2-(1' H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester) is a dietary-derived indole-based ligand of the cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transcription factor.
The pathways involved in ITE synthesis in vivo remain unclear . ITE has been hypothesized to result from gastric conversion of glucobrassicins, a family of metabolites highly concentrated in cruciferous vegetables (such as broccoli and brussel sprouts), or from a condensation reaction between two amino acids, tryptophan and cysteine [1-3]. ITE is a potent AhR agonist both in vitro and in vivo, and unlike 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the prototypical AhR agonist, it does not induce toxicity .
InvivoGen's ITE is a high quality product (>95% purity) and is guaranteed free of bacterial contamination. Each lot of ITE is functionally tested in cellular assays using HepG2-Lucia™ AhR and HT29-Lucia™ AhR reporter cells.
Learn more on AhR. Read our review on AhR's key role in the intestinal microbiota and immunity.
1. Song J. et al., 2002. A ligand for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor isolated from lung. Proc.Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 99:14694-9.
2. Lamas B. et al., 2018. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor and intestinal immunity. Mucosal Immunol. 11:1024-38.
3. Hubbard T.D. et al., 2015. Indole and tryptophan metabolism: endogenous and dietary routes to Ah receptor activation. Drug Metab. Dispos. 43:1522-35.
4. Henry E.C. et al., 2010. TCDD and a putative endogenous AhR ligand, ITE, elicit the same immediate changes in gene expression in mouse lung fibroblasts. Toxicol. Sci. 114:90-100.
ITE induces a dose-dependent response in HepG2-Lucia™ Ahr and HT29-Lucia™ Ahr cells.
The cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of ITE. After overnight incubation, the AhR activation
was assessed by determining Lucia luciferase activity in the supernatant using QUANTI-Luc™.
Data are expressed as fold responses, as compared to non-induced cells.
CAS number: 448906-42-1
Synomym: 2-(1' H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester
Solubility: 100 mM (28.63 mg/ml) in DMSO
Working concentration: 1 µM (286.3 ng/ml) to 30 µM (8.59 μg/ml) for cell culture assays
Molecular weight: 286.3 g/mol
- Purity ≥ 95% (UHPLC).
- The absence of bacterial contamination (e.g. lipoproteins and endotoxins) has been confirmed using HEK-Blue™ TLR2 and HEK‑Blue™ TLR4 cells.
- The biological activity has been validated using cellular assays.
10 mg ITE
ITE is shipped at room temperature.
Store at -20°C.
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ITE chemical structure
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