Indirubin Unit size Cat. code Docs Qty Price
2-(2-oxo-1H-indol-3-ylidene)-1H-indol-3-one; AhR agonist
10 mg

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Tryptophan-derived agonist of AhR

Indirubin (2-(2-oxo-1H-indol-3-ylidene)-1H-indol-3-one) is a dietary-derived indole-based ligand of the cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transcription factor [1].
Indirubin is an endogenous AhR agonist but its synthesis requires diet-derived tryptophan (Trp) amino. Indirubin results from Trp metabolism by the commensal gut microbiota and host hepatocytes [1]. Indirubin was shown to be more potent at activating human AhR than 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the prototypical AhR agonist [2]. Of note, indirubin is a more potent agonist of human AhR than murine AhR [3].

InvivoGen's indirubin is a high-quality product (>95% purity) and is guaranteed free of bacterial contamination. Each lot of indirubin is functionally tested in cellular assays using HepG2-Lucia™ AhR and HT29-Lucia™ AhR reporter cells.

Other AhR ligands, as well as an AhR antagonist, are also available.


Read our reviewRead our review on AhR's key role in the intestinal microbiota and immunity.



1. Hubbard T.D. et al., 2015. Indole and tryptophan metabolism: endogenous and dietary routes to Ah receptor activation. Drug Metab. Dispos. 43:1522-35.
2. Adachi J. et al., 2001. Indirubin and indigo are potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands present in human urine. J. Biol. Chem. 276:31475-78.
3. Flaveny C.A. et al., 2009. Ligand selectivity and gene regulation by the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor in transgenic mice. Mol. Pharmacol. 75:1412-20.


Evaluation of cellular AhR activation by indirubin
Evaluation of cellular AhR activation by indirubin

Indirubin induces a dose-dependent response in HepG2-Lucia™ AhR cells. The cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of indirubin. After overnight incubation, the AhR activation was assessed by determining Lucia luciferase activity in the supernatant using QUANTI-Luc™. Data are expressed as fold responses, as compared to non-induced cells. DMSO final concentration impacts cell viability and AhR activation. We recommend to include a control dilution of DMSO in your assay. Using our protocol, a 100 µM
indirubin concentration includes 2% DMSO.

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CAS number: 479-41-4

Synonym: 2-(2-oxo-1H-indol-3-ylidene)-1H-indol-3-one

Solubility: 10 mg/ml in DMSO

Working concentration: 25 µM to 100 μM for cell culture assays

Formula: C16H10N2O2

Molecular weight: 262.26 g/mol

Quality control:

  • Purity >95% (HPLC)
  • Absence of bacterial contamination (e.g. lipoproteins and endotoxins) has been confirmed using HEK-Blue™ hTLR2 and HEK-Blue™ hTLR4 cells.
  • Biological activity has been validated using cellular assays.
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  • 10 mg indirubin provided as a powder

Room temperature Indirubin is shipped at room temperature.

Store Upon receipt, store product at -20 °C. Upon resuspension, prepare aliquots and store at -20 °C.

Stability Resuspended product is stable for at least 1 month when properly stored.

Alert Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.

We recommend protecting this product from light.

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Chemical structure of indirubin:

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