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2-(2-oxo-1H-indol-3-ylidene)-1H-indol-3-one; AhR agonist
Tryptophan-derived agonist of AhR
Indirubin (2-(2-oxo-1H-indol-3-ylidene)-1H-indol-3-one) is a dietary-derived indole-based ligand of the cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transcription factor .
Indirubin is an endogenous AhR agonist but its synthesis requires diet-derived tryptophan (Trp) amino. Indirubin results from Trp metabolism by the commensal gut microbiota and host hepatocytes . Indirubin was shown to be more potent at activating human AhR than 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the prototypical AhR agonist . Of note, indirubin is a more potent agonist of human AhR than murine AhR .
InvivoGen's indirubin is a high-quality product (>95% purity) and is guaranteed free of bacterial contamination. Each lot of indirubin is functionally tested in cellular assays using HepG2-Lucia™ AhR and HT29-Lucia™ AhR reporter cells.
Read our review on AhR's key role in the intestinal microbiota and immunity.
1. Hubbard T.D. et al., 2015. Indole and tryptophan metabolism: endogenous and dietary routes to Ah receptor activation. Drug Metab. Dispos. 43:1522-35.
2. Adachi J. et al., 2001. Indirubin and indigo are potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands present in human urine. J. Biol. Chem. 276:31475-78.
3. Flaveny C.A. et al., 2009. Ligand selectivity and gene regulation by the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor in transgenic mice. Mol. Pharmacol. 75:1412-20.
Indirubin induces a dose-dependent response in HepG2-Lucia™ AhR cells. The cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of indirubin. After overnight incubation, the AhR activation was assessed by determining Lucia luciferase activity in the supernatant using QUANTI-Luc™. Data are expressed as fold responses, as compared to non-induced cells. DMSO final concentration impacts cell viability and AhR activation. We recommend to include a control dilution of DMSO in your assay. Using our protocol, a 100 µM
indirubin concentration includes 2% DMSO.
CAS number: 479-41-4
Solubility: 10 mg/ml in DMSO
Working concentration: 25 µM to 100 μM for cell culture assays
Molecular weight: 262.26 g/mol
- Purity >95% (HPLC)
- Absence of bacterial contamination (e.g. lipoproteins and endotoxins) has been confirmed using HEK-Blue™ hTLR2 and HEK-Blue™ hTLR4 cells.
- Biological activity has been validated using cellular assays.
- 10 mg indirubin provided as a powder
Indirubin is shipped at room temperature.
Upon receipt, store product at -20 °C. Upon resuspension, prepare aliquots and store at -20 °C.
Resuspended product is stable for at least 1 month when properly stored.
Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
We recommend protecting this product from light.Back to the top
Chemical structure of indirubin:
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