Recombinant human IFN-α family
Recombinant human interferons alpha (with HSA)
Type I interferons (IFN) include the IFN-α family, IFN-β, IFN-ε, IFN-κ and IFN-ω. IFN-αs are important anti-viral cytokines that also have anti-proliferative and immuno-modulatory functions. The human IFN-α family comprises 13 genes encoding 12 proteins, with IFN-α13 being identical to IFN-α1. All IFN-αs bind to a common heterodimer receptor IFNAR1/IFNAR2. The ternary complex signals through the Janus kinase (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway, inducing the formation of the ISGF3 transcriptional complex (STAT1/STAT2/IRF9). ISGF3 binds to IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE) in the promoter regions of numerous IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) .
Human IFN-α genes have evolved under strong selective pressure, suggesting a non-redundant role between IFN-α subtypes . Although most studies have focused on IFN-α2 and IFN-α8, a consensus model for all IFN-αs has emerged depending on the affinity of a particular IFN-α subtype for IFNAR. Low affinity IFN-α subtypes signal strictly through ISGF3 and induce robust ISGs, such as PKR, ISG56, and IFI16, which display anti-viral functions. Conversely, high affinity IFN-α subtypes signal through ISGF3 and other factors, which activate “tunable” ISGs” such as CXCL10, IL-8, and ISG15, that induce anti-proliferative and immuno-modulatory functions . IFN-α8, IFN-α10 and IFN-α14 have been identified as the most potent inducers of ISGs, while IFN-α1 is the weakest .
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