HKSE Unit size Cat. code Docs Qty Price
Heat Killed Staphylococcus epidermidis
10e10 cells

Heat Killed Staphylococcus epidermidis

HKSE is a heat killed preparation of the Gram positive bacterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis.

S. epidermidis is a ubiquitous skin commensal and a major cause of nosocomial bacteremia, particularly in immunocompromised patients and those with implantable medical devices.

The recognition and clearance of S. epidermidis bacteremia is known to be mediated by the toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 [1]. In vitro studies demonstrate that cell wall components from this bacterium, such as peptidoglycan (PGN), are recognized by TLR2 [2].

HKSE can stimulate TLR2 and induce the production of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β [3, 4].



1. Strunk T. et al., 2010. TLR2 mediates recognition of live Staphylococcus epidermidis and clearance of bacteremia. PLoS One. 5(4):e10111.
2. Natsuka M. et al., 2008. A polymer-type water-soluble peptidoglycan exhibited both Toll-like receptor 2- and NOD2-agonistic activities, resulting in synergistic activation of human monocytic cells. Innate Immun 14: 298–308.
3. Strunk T. et al., 2011. Method of bacterial killing differentially affects the human innate immune response to Staphylococcus epidermidis. Innate Immunity 17: 508 - 516.
4. Netea MG. et al., 2009. Differential requirement for the activation of the inflammasome for processing and release of IL-1β in monocytes and macrophages. Blood 113: 2324 - 2335.

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Specificity: TLR2 agonist

Working concentration: 107 - 109 HKSE cells/ml.

Solubility: Insoluble (resuspended HKSE results in a cloudy suspension)

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HKSE is provided lyophilized.

  • 1010 freeze-dried cells of Heat Killed Staphylococcus epidermidis FDA strain PCI 1200 (HKSE)
  • 1.5 ml endotoxin-free water

room temperature HKSE is shipped at room temperature.

store Store at 4°C

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