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NLRP3 inflammasome inducer - Deacetylated derivative of chitin - Th1/Th2 response
NLRP3 inflammasome inducer - Vaccine adjuvant
Chitosan is the deacetylated derivative of chitin, a polysaccharide found in the exoskeletons of crustaceans and in the cell walls of fungi.
Chitosan is well known for its use in drug delivery, where it is used as a bioadhesive agent and to enhance the absorption of proteins across mucosal surfaces. In addition to its role in drug delivery, chitosan acts as an adjuvant, owning to its immunostimulatory activity [1, 2].
Due to its bioadhesive properties, chitosan is efficiently taken up by phagocytotic cells, leading to the strong induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses. Although the activity of chitosan is not fully understood, there are some clues to its mode of action. Chitosan stimulates the immune system by activating the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to potent IL-1β production . When tested in experimental models of vaccination, chitosan elicits a balanced Th1/Th2 response .
Chitosan VacciGrade. is a sterile ultra-pure chitosan of non-animal origin, purified from white edible mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), that has been formulated to increase its solubility. It contains very low levels of endotoxins (<5EU/mg).
1. Lin Y. et al., 2014. Chitosan as an adjuvant-like substrate for dendritic cell culture to enhance antitumor effects. Biomaterials. 35(31):8867-75.
2. Scherließ R. et al., 2013. In vivo evaluation of chitosan as an adjuvant in subcutaneous vaccine formulations. Vaccine. 31(42):4812-9.
3. Neumann S. et al, 2014. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is not a feature of all particulate vaccine adjuvants. Immunol Cell Biol. 92:535-42.
4. Wen Z. et al., 2011. Chitosan nanoparticles act as an adjuvant to promote both Th1 and Th2 immune responses induced by ovalbumin in mice. Mar Drugs.9(6):1038-55.
Synonym: Poly(D-glucosamine); Deacetylated chitin
CAS number: 9012-76-4
Molecular weight: 60 - 120 kDa
Degree of acetylation (%mol): 15-25
Working concentration: 100 µg/mouse
- Endotoxin Level < 5 EU/mg
Chitosan VacciGrade™ is provided lyophilized.
- 100 mg sterile lyophilized Chitosan VacciGrade™
- 10 ml sterile endotoxin-free water containing 1 % acetic acid
- 10 ml sterile endotoxin-free physiological water (NaCl 0.9 %)
Chitosan VacciGrade™ is shipped at room temperature.
Store at 2-8 °C.Back to the top
Anti-Ova mIgG levels at 15, 30 and 45 days after the initial immunization by intra nasal instillation in different groups.
Mice were immunized i. n. at 0, 2 and 4 weeks with 30 mg of EndoFit™ Ovalbumin alone or adjuvanted with 100µg Chitosan VacciGrade™, or 10µg ODN 1826 VacciGrade™ in a final volume of 20 ml. Serum anti-OVA mIgG was monitored by ELISA (coated with ovalbumin at 10 mg/ml in PBS).