|2’3’-c-di-GMP||Unit size||Cat. code||Docs||Price|
Analog of c-di-GMP
2’3’-c-di-GMP is a synthetic analog of the bacterial second messenger 3’3’-cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) which differ only by one phosphodiester linkage. c-di-GMP is a potent immunostimulant in mammals. It induces production of type I interferons (IFNs) by directly binding to the endoplasmic reticulum-resident receptor STING (stimulator of interferon genes) [1, 2]. Interestingly, it has been reported that its analog 2’3’-c-di-GMP can induce modest antitumoral activity in animal models . When used at low concentrations in various cellular assays, 2’3’-c-di-GMP induces higher levels of type I IFNs than does c-di-GMP.
STING ligands such as c-di-GMP induce type I IFNs and activate interferon stimulated genes (ISG) through interferon regulatory factors (IRFs). To facilitate their study, InvivoGen has developed stable reporter cells in two well established immune cell models: THP-1 human monocytes and RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. These cells express a reporter gene (SEAP or Lucia luciferase), under control of an IRF-inducible promoter.
1. Jin L. et al., 2011. MPYS is required for IFN response factor 3 activation and type I IFN production in the response of cultured phagocytes to bacterial second messengers cyclic-di-AMP and cyclic-di-GMP. J Immunol. 187(5):2595-601.
2. Burdette DL. et al., 2011. STING is a direct innate immune sensor of cyclic di-GMP. Nature. 478(7370):515-8.
3. Corrales L et al., 2015. Direct activation of STING in the tumor microenvironment leads to potent and systemic tumor regression and immunity. Cell Rep. 11(7):1018-30.
4. Unterholzner L. et al., 2010. IFI16 is an innate immune sensor for intracellular DNA.Nat Immunol. 11(11):997-1004.
5. Zhang Z. et al., 2011. The helicase DDX41 senses intracellular DNA mediated by the adaptor STING in dendritic cells. Nat Immunol.12(10):959-65.
6. Arakawa R. et al., 2010. Characterization of LRRFIP1. Biochem Cell Biol. 88(6):899-906.
7. Lippmann J. et al., 2010. IFN-beta responses induced by intracellular bacteria or cytosolic DNA in different human cells do not require ZBP1 (DLM-1/DAI). Cell Microbiol. 10(12):2579-88.
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Synonyms: 2’3’-c-di-GMP sodium salt; 2',5'-3',5'-c-diGMP; cyclic (guanosine-(2'→5')-monophosphate-guanosine-(3'→5')-monophosphate); c[G(2',5')pG(3',5')p]
Formula: C20H22N10O14P2 .2Na
Molecular weight: 734.38
Solubility: 50 mg/ml in water
CAS number: 1638241-12-9
- The ability of 2’3’-c-di-GMP to induce type I interferon (IFN) has been confirmed in THP1-Blue™ ISG cells.
- The absence of bacterial contamination (lipoproteins & endotoxins) has been confirmed using HEK-Blue™ TLR2 and HEK-Blue™ TLR4 cells.
- Purity and structure controlled by LC/MS and NMR: ≥ 95%
- 500 μg of lyophilized 2’3’-c-di-GMP
- 1.5 ml endotoxin-free water
Product is shipped at room temperature and
Product should be stored at -20°C.
Product is sterile filtered prior to lyophilization.Back to the top
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