THP1-Dual™ KI-hSTING-R232 Cells

THP1-DualKI-STING cells are a family of reporter cells designed to study variants of STING (stimulator of interferon genes).

More info on KI-STING cell lines: see the 'Description' tab.

THP1-DualKI-hSTING-R232 cells were generated from THP1-Dual™ KO-STING cells by knockin of the intronless coding sequence (from the ATG to the TGA) of the R232 hSTING variant. Genomic studies indicate that this variant, which contains an arginine at position 232 (R232), is the most prevalent variant with an occurrence (homozygous allele) of ~45‑58% in the human population [2,3]. This isoform is preferentially activated by 2’5’linkage-containing cGAMP isomers [4].

THP1-Dual™ KI-hSTING-R232 cells are resistant to blasticidin and Zeocin™.

Figures for this product

IRF INDUCTION (Lucia luciferase reporter)NF-kB INDUCTION (SEAP reporter)


Antibiotic resistance: Zeocin™blasticidin

Growth medium:  RPMI 1640, 2 mM L-glutamine, 25 mM HEPES, 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum, 100 μg/ml Normocin™, Pen-Strep (100 U/ml-100 μg/ml)

Quality control
• The biallelic knockin (KI) of the human STING variant (R232) has been verified by functional assays, PCR and sequencing.
• Reporter activity has been validated by stimulating the cells with STING ligands, such as c-di-AMP, cGAMP.
• The cell line stability for 20 passages following thawing has been verified.
• The cell line is guaranteed mycoplasma-free.

Shipped on dry ice

This product is covered by a Limited Use License (See Terms and Conditions).


• 1 vial of THP1-Dual™ KI-hSTING-R232 cells (3-7 x 106 cells) in freezing medium.
• 1 ml Normocin™ (50 mg/ml). Normocin™ is a formulation of three antibiotics active against mycoplasmas, bacteria and fungi. 
• 100 μl Zeocin™ (100 mg/ml).
• 100 μl Blasticidin (10 mg/ml).
• 1 pouch of QUANTI-Luc™ (Lucia luciferase detection medium).
• 1 pouch of QUANTI-Blue™ (SEAP detection medium).

IMPORTANT: Cells are shipped frozen. If cells are not frozen upon arrival, contact InvivoGen immediately.


THP1-Dual™ KI-STING cells are a family of reporter cells designed to study variants of STING (stimulator of interferon genes). STING is essential for the interferon (IFN) response to cytoplasmic foreign or self-DNA and directly senses cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), which are important messengers in bacteria and innate immune agonists in mammals.
Interestingly, distinct variants of human STING (hSTING) that affect CDN recognition and signal transduction have been identified [1, 2], including:
• R232: the most prevalent in the human population.
• HAQ: found in THP1 cells. It contains three non-synonymous single nucleotide substitutions; R71H, G230A and R293Q.
• H232: the most commonly used hSTING variant in structural studies.
• A162: a synthetic mutation (S162A) that confers sensitivity to DMXAA, a tumor vascular disrupting agent in mice. DMXAA has no effect on hSTING.
• S154: a gain-of-function mutation resulting in constitutive STING activation

THP1-Dual™ KI-STING cells enable the study of STING variation by monitoring the activation of the transcription factors ISRE (IFN-stimulated response elements) and NF-kB in a physiologically relevant cell line. They were generated from THP1-Dual™ KO-STING cells, which derive from the human THP-1 monocyte cell line by stable biallelic knockout of the endogenous human HAQ STING gene and stable integration of two inducible secreted reporter genes: Lucia luciferase and SEAP (secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase). The Lucia luciferase reporter gene is under the control of an ISG54 (interferon-stimulated gene) minimal promoter in conjunction with five IFN-stimulated response elements. The SEAP gene is driven by an IFN-β minimal promoter fused to five copies of the NF-kB response element. As a result, they allow the simultaneous study of the IFN regulatory factor (IRF) pathway, by assessing the activity of Lucia luciferase and the NF-kB pathway, by monitoring the activity of SEAP. Both reporter proteins are readily measurable in the cell culture supernatant when using QUANTI- Blue™, a SEAP detection reagent, and QUANTI‑Luc™, a Lucia™ detection reagent.


  1. Gao P. et al., 2013. Structure-function analysis of STING activation by c[G(2’,5’) pA(3’,5’)p] and targeting by antiviral DMXAA. Cell 154(4):748-62.
  2. Yi G. et al., 2013. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of human STING can affect innate immune response to cyclic dinucleotides. PLoS One. 8:e77846.
  3. Jin L. et al., 2011. Identification and characterization of a loss-of-function human MPYS variant. Genes Immun. 12:263-9.
  4. Zhang X. et al., 2013. Cyclic GMP-AMP containing mixed phosphodiester linkages is an endogenous high-affinity ligand for STING. Mol. Cell. 51:226–235.


THP1-Dual™ KI-hSTING-R232 Cells

Description STING (R232 isoform) knockin NF-kB-SEAP and IRF-Lucia Reporter Monocytes
Cat. Codethpd-r232
Unit Size3-7 x 10e6 cells
Price For price or distributor address,
please select your country
Disclaimer: Our products are provided for research purpose only. Commercial applications may require licensing from third parties.
Note that the sequence of available ORFs provided by InvivoGen can differ from a given reference Genbank record due to genetic variations and/or alternative splicing. Customers should verify that the version of a gene sold by InvivoGen is suitable for the customer needs.
Copyrights © 2011-2016 InvivoGen. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction of any materials from this site is strictly forbidden without permission for commercial use. Nonprofit use for non-commercial research and educational purposes is permitted, citation should include the URL "".