Cytosolic DNA Sensors (CDS) & STING Ligands
Cytosolic DNA sensors (CDSs) detect damaged, mislocalized or pathogenic DNA, typically inducing type I IFN production through the TBK1-IRF3 pathway. Several CDSs have been identified, including cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), the IFN-inducible IFI16 protein, and the helicase DDX41. Induction of type I IFNs by cytosolic DNA is mediated by the endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein STING (stimulator of IFN genes).
STING is also a direct sensor of both bacterial and mammalian cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), activating TBK-1/IRF-3 and NF-κB signaling pathways to induce robust type I IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines.
InvivoGen provides a comprehensive collection of double-stranded DNA ligands known to stimulate CDSs and CDNs known to activate STING.